What is Trauma & how does it differ from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Know its Causes and Symptoms

Posted 05 September, 2022

What is Trauma & how does it differ from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Know its Causes and Symptoms

A time based emotional response to a particular event is known as trauma that causes deep damage or impact on the mind. This profound trauma or damage can be in any form, such as physical, psychological, social, mental and emotional. There are different reasons for each of these. Trauma can occur once, twice, or on multiple occasions, and more than one type of trauma can also be experienced at a given point of time.

The inability to recover from a traumatic experience can lead to long term emotional damage, leading to susceptibility to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may sometimes lead to deaths, and disabilities. These can be prevented if people are given proper information and necessary training about ways to deal with it.

Types of Trauma

  • Physical or Acute Trauma-This results from any damage to the body due to a stressful or dangerous event. This damage can happen due to many reasons. Out of all these reasons, road accidents are the major cause of trauma all over the world.
  • Emotional or Chronic Trauma-Emotional and psychological trauma can be caused by repeated and persistent physical and mental injury, such as child abuse, bullying, etc. but sometimes people can suffer emotional and psychological trauma without any physical damage. Women are more prone to emotional trauma than men.
  • Complex trauma-Complex trauma is described as exposure to multiple traumatic incidents, often severe and prevalent. This is generally associated with kids, which tends to disrupt their mental growth. Examples include sexual abuse, incest, ongoing physical or emotional abuse, mental torture or being held captive, abandonment, etc.

Causes of Trauma

  • Divorce or traumatic grief.
  • Death of a Family Member, Lover, Friend, Teacher, or Pet.
  • Physical pain or injury (such as a serious car accident).
  • Serious illness/ Medical trauma.
  • Natural disaster.
  • War or military trauma.
  • Natural disaster.
  • Community violence (interracial, police, gang-related, etc.).
  • School violence or bullying.
  • Moving to a new place or forced displacement.
  • Being a witness to any of the above traumatic events.
  • Drug overdose.
  • Abandonment by parents or feeling neglected.
  • Domestic violence or Sexual abuse.

Symptoms of Trauma

People respond to traumatic events in different ways. There are often no obvious signs, but people can have severe emotional reactions. Shock and denial are a common reaction soon after the incident. Shock and denial are typically used to protect oneself from the emotional impact of the event.

Symptoms of Trauma can range from mild to severe. These depend on the person's characteristics, mental condition, exposure to past traumatic events, the type of event, and the background of how the person handles the emotion.

Emotional Symptoms of Trauma

  • Numbness, denial, and disbelief.
  • Confusion or trouble in concentrating.
  • Anger, irritability, mood swings.
  • Worry and fear.
  • Feelings of guilt, shame, and self-blame.
  • Staying aloof.
  • Be sad and disappointed.
  • Feeling cut off or numb from others.

Physical Symptoms of Trauma

  • Insomnia or nightmares.
  • Fatigue.
  • Hamstring strain.
  • Increased heart rate.
  • Feeling aches and pains.
  • Feeling of passion and ferocity.
  • To be easily startled or trembled.
  • Headache.
  • Poor digestive system.
  • Sweating profusely.

An important thing to note is that trauma doesn't just happen in adults. Children can also suffer from this.

What is Trauma in children?

According to research, children are at higher risk of trauma as their brain continues to develop. Children experience high states of stress during frightening or terrifying events, and then their body releases hormones related to stress and fear. This type of trauma in children can disrupt normal brain development. The resulting long-lasting trauma can affect a child's emotional development, mental and physical health. Because of this, the feeling of fear and helplessness can persist until adulthood and there is a risk of getting trauma in the future too.

Symptoms of Trauma in 0-3 year olds

  • Not eating properly.
  • Frequent sleep disturbances.
  • Irritable behavior.
  • Child being scared.
  • To be surprised at something.
  • Delayed speaking.
  • Aggressive behavior.
  • Talking about and remembering the traumatic event.

Symptoms of Trauma in 3-6 year old child

  • Procrastination and worrisome thoughts.
  • Feeling scared all the time.
  • Feeling hopeless and helpless.
  • Headache.
  • Having a hard time understanding what's bothering them.
  • Daydreaming and always being irritable.
  • Aggressive behavior.
  • Be sad or worried.
  • Not making friends and trying to be alone.

How does Trauma differ from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?

Although, often used interchangeably, trauma and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) differ from each other in their degree of time. Trauma is a specific time based phenomena which when worsens takes the form of a disorder known as PTSD.

How to Recover from situation of Trauma

  • Follow a healthy routine.
  • Talk to family members, friends about your troubled situation.
  • Maintain positive attitude towards things & situations.
  • Watch comedy movies and shows. Spending time with family, reading, listening and sharing jokes proves to be of great help.
  • Practice deep breathing, yoga and meditation for at least 30 minutes every day.
  • Try to get 7 to 9 hours of sleep.
  • Avoid alcohol consumption and smoking. These increase the symptoms of trauma such as depression, anxiety, and feelings of loneliness.

Therapeutic Treatments for Trauma

  • Cognitive therapy-This talk therapy helps you identify your way of thinking. In this, you are made to realize that your quality of life is being affected due to negative thinking.
  • Exposure therapy or Somatic experiencing-This therapy helps you to safely face the situation that scares you, so that you can learn how to deal with it effectively. One dimension of exposure therapy is a virtual reality program, in which you are introduced to the setting in which you experience trauma.
  • Sensorimotor psychotherapy-It combines psychotherapy with certain body-based techniques that could help the patient to turn their trauma into a source of strength.
  • Acupoint stimulation-Acupoint stimulation involves a trained practitioner apply pressure to specific points on the body, which induces relaxation & provide a calming effect, releasing the stress out of the body.
  • Touch therapies-Certain touch therapies such as Reiki, healing touch, and therapeutic touch therapy helps a person gather positive vibes from a practitioner performing these therapies.
  • Group therapy-It consists of creating a group of people who are going through similar experiences so that they can share their experiences & be vocal about their miseries. This helps to overcome traumatic situations.

When to visit a Psychiatrist?

  • If all the efforts to cope up with the traumatic events fail and the condition doesn’t get better, then they should seek help from a mental healthcare professional. It is particularly important to seek help if the symptoms of trauma interfere with routine life or impacting relationships.
  • Even those with low to mild symptoms can talk to someone about how they feel to have a better hold on themselves and feel better.
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Vertigo: All You Need To Know

Posted 01 August, 2022

Vertigo: All You Need To Know

Vertigo is a medical condition characterized by a spinning sensation, in which a person feels that they or the objects around them are moving or rotating. The spinning sensation may be barely noticeable or maybe so intense making normal life very difficult. Attacks of vertigo can occur suddenly and last for several hours or very long or even days. It can happen at any age, but is common in older people about 65 years and above.

Types of Vertigo

There are different types of vertigo

  • Peripheral vertigoIt usually occurs as a result of a disturbance in the organs of the inner ear.
  • Central vertigoCentral vertigo is connected to the problem in the central nervous system. It is usually associated with a disturbance in either the brainstem or the cerebellum.

Causes of Vertigo

Different diseases and conditions can cause vertigo. They include

  • LabyrinthitisLabyrinthitis is inflammation of the inner ear.
  • Meniere’s diseaseA buildup of fluid in the inner ear can cause vertigo.
  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigoCertain head movement triggers vertigo. It usually affects older adults.
  • Brainstem diseaseStroke.

Other causes include

  • Head injuries or trauma.
  • Ear surgery.
  • Migraine headache..
  • Prolonged bed rest.
  • Certain medications.
  • Syphilis.

Signs and Symptoms of Vertigo

Some common signs and symptoms of vertigo include

  • Vomiting.
  • Nausea.
  • Dizziness.
  • A loss of balance that makes standing or walking difficult.
  • Lightheadedness.
  • Headache.
  • A feeling of fullness in the ear.

Risk factors of Vertigo

Certain risk factors can increase your chances of vertigo. These include

  • Being over the age of 50.
  • Being a woman.
  • Experiencing a head injury.
  • Taking certain medications, especially antidepressants or antipsychotics.
  • Experiencing any medical condition that affects balance or your ears.
  • Having a previous episode of vertigo.
  • Family history.
  • Experiencing an inner ear infection.
  • Having high levels of stress.
  • Alcohol consumption.

Diagnosis of Vertigo

During an evaluation, the doctor may obtain a full history of symptoms and events including medications that have been taken, migraine headache and recent head injury or ear infection.

A physical examination is then performed, during a physical examination, the doctor may likely look for

Signs and symptoms of dizziness that are triggered by eye or head movements, Inability to control eye movements and involuntary movement of the eye from side to side.

If the cause is difficult to determine, additional testing may be performed

  • An MRI scan to visualize your head and body. Doctors can use the images to identify and diagnose a variety of conditions.
  • Videonystagmography (VNG) uses a camera to measure involuntary eye movement while the head is placed in a different position. This can help determine if the dizziness is due to an inner ear disorder. The patient wears glasses containing a video camera.
  • Electronystagmography (ENG) is similar to VNG. This procedure uses electrodes to detect abnormal eye movements. The patient wears a headset with electrodes placed around the eyes.

Treatment for Vertigo

Some types of vertigo resolve without treatment

  • Prescription drugs such as lorazepam, meclizine can be used to relieve the dizziness caused by Meniere’s disease.
  • Symptoms of nausea can be relieved by using drugs such as antihistamines.
  • Steroids, antiviral drugs or antibiotics may be prescribed for a patient with an acute disorder affecting the middle ear.
  • Sometimes, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) can be treated with an inner surgery, a bone plug is inserted into the inner ear to block the area triggering vertigo.
  • Avoiding caffeine, alcohol and tobacco smoking can also help.
  • The volume of the fluid retained in the body that can build up in the inner ear can also be reduced by restricting salt.

Home Remedies for Vertigo

  • Epley maneuverThe Epley maneuver is used in combination with medications to treat benign paroxysmal posterior vertigo (BPPV) and also to prevent its recurrence.

How to do

  • While sitting on bed, place a pillow behind you.
  • Turn your head 45° to the side of the affected ear.
  • Lie down with your head in the same position and rest your shoulders on the pillow. Your head should be bent over the bed for 30 seconds.
  • Tilt your head 90° to the opposite ear (without lifting your head).
  • Hold for 30 seconds and then rotate your entire body 90° to the side of the ear that is now down.
  • After 30 seconds, sit up slowly and keep your head in a neutral position.
  • Repeat the process three to four times a day.

Half somersault maneuver

The half somersault maneuver is an alternative to the Epley maneuver and is relatively more effective for some people. However, more than half a somersault is required to relieve benign paroxysmal posterior vertigo (BPPV).

How to do

  • Kneel on the floor, then sit on your calves until you place your palms on the floor directly in front of your bent knees.
  • Pull in your back and tilt your neck to look at the ceiling. This is the starting position.
  • Bring your body to the starting position of a somersault, touching the top of your head to the floor just in front of the knees.
  • While remaining in this somersault position, turn your head to the side most affected by the dizziness so that you are facing the corresponding elbow.
  • Lift your turned head and the rest of your upper body and sit back on your calves.
  • Stretch your neck to raise your head above body level.
  • Return to your starting position.

Brandt-Daroff exercise

The Brandt-Daroff exercise is very effective for vertigo caused by labyrinthitis or BPPV, especially for those who are sensitive to the redistribution maneuver or for whom other maneuvers have no positive effect.

How to do

  • Sit up straight, this will be your starting position.
  • Lie on your side with your nose facing up at an angle of about 45°.
  • Remain in this position for about 30 seconds or until the dizziness subsides before returning to the starting position.
  • Repeat the same exercise on the other side.
  • Ginkgo bilobaGinkgo biloba extract can also be used to relieve symptoms of dizziness or vertigo. Ginkgo biloba is widely used in Eastern medicine for its antioxidant properties. It can also help increase blood flow to the brain, thereby improving cognitive function. You can prepare a therapeutic tea with ginkgo biloba extract or ask your doctor to start a supplement.
  • AlmondsAlmonds are full of vitamins B and E, which obviously make them very effective in treating vertigo. Soak four almonds overnight in water. In the morning, make a paste of soaked almonds and add it to a glass of warm milk and consume it.
  • Ginger teaGinger is known for its healing properties, which can help relieve symptoms of vertigo. This can be done by increasing blood circulation in your body and relieving nausea. Boil 2 cups of water in a pan, add a few pieces of raw ginger, turn off the heat and cover the pot. Soak the ginger in hot water for about 10 minutes, then strain the tea into a cup. Add a few drops of honey or lemon to enhance the taste.
  • AcupressureAcupressure is a safe and inexpensive technique for treating vertigo caused by Meniere's disease. It involves pressing specific points of the body with fingers or a spoon to stimulate blood flow and relieve various ailments.

When to see a doctor?

See your doctor, if you experience severe dizziness or vertigo along with severe headache or chest pain.

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Aneurysm: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Posted 14 June, 2022

Aneurysm: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Aneurysm is a fairly common medical condition that occurs when an artery wall weakens and leads to a bulge. The bulge can cause damage to the artery and lead to internal bleeding, which can prove to be fatal in certain circumstances. It can be caused by hereditary or acquired diseases.

Aneurysm can develop anywhere in the body, but are most commonly found in the brain, legs, aorta (vessel of heart) and spleen. As the aneurysm grows in size, the risk of ruptureincreaseswhich causes uncontrolled bleeding.

Types of Aneurysm

Aneurysms are classified by their location in the body or by their shape. Some of the most common aneurysm sites seen in the body are-

Aortic aneurysm-These aneurysms are found in the aorta, the main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to other major organs in the body. The diameter of the aorta is 2-3 cm and the aortic aneurysm can bulge up to 5 cm or more. Within the aorta, aneurysms are usually seen in several areas, including-

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)-This aneurysm occurs in the area of ​​the aorta that runs through the abdomen or stomach region. This is the most common aortic aneurysm.

  • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA)-This aneurysm occurs in the area of ​​the aorta that runs through the chest.

  • Cerebral or brain aneurysm-This aneurysm occurs in the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.

Peripheral aneurysm- This occurs in blood vessels that supply blood to other parts of the body such as legs, groin or neck. Types of peripheral aneurysm include-

  • Carotid artery aneurysm-This aneurysm occurs in an artery placed in the neck called the carotid artery.

  • Femoral artery aneurysm-This occurs in an artery of groin or thigh region called the femoral artery.

  • Mesenteric artery aneurysm-This aneurysm occurs in the artery that carries blood to the intestines.

  • Popliteal aneurysm-This is the most common peripheral aneurysm that occurs behind the knee.

  • Splenic artery aneurysm-This aneurysm occurs in an artery called the splenic artery, which supplies blood to the spleen.

  • Visceral aneurysm-This occurs in the arteries that supply blood to the bowel or kidneys.

Aneurysms are also classified according to the shape of the bulge-

Fusiform aneurysm-The bulge in this type of aneurysm forms on all sides of the blood vessel.

Sacral aneurysm-The bulge in this type of aneurysm only forms on one side of the blood vessel.

Berry aneurysm-The bulge in this type of aneurysm looks like a berry on a narrow stalk. This is the most common type of cerebral aneurysm.

Pseudoaneurysm or false aneurysm-Sometimes a rupture in the lining of the blood vessel wall causes internal bleeding. The leakage is retained by the surrounding soft tissue or the perivascular tissue of the blood vessel, creating a pseudo aneurysm.

Causes of Aneurysm

The exact cause of aneurysm is still unknown but certain factors can contribute to them which includes-

  • Tissue damage to the arteries can lead to aneurysm. The damage may be caused by blockages due to fatty deposits. The blockage can get the heart pumping faster, increasing the pressure on the arteries leading to damage.

  • Conditions such as high blood pressure and atherosclerotic disease can lead to aneurysm.

  • Several systemic conditions can cause vasculitis or inflammation of the blood vessels, which leads to damaging and weakening of the walls.

Risk factors of Aneurysm

Common risk factors associated with aneurysm are-

  • Being above the age of 60.

  • Being obese.

  • Smoking.

  • Having a diet high in fat and cholesterol.

  • Pregnancy increases the chances of aneurysm developing in the spleen.

  • Family history of heart disease and heart attack.

Symptoms of Aneurysm

In most cases, the aneurysm can be clinically silent, ie. It does not present any symptoms unless it ruptures. However, if present, symptoms usually depend on the location of the aneurysm.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can be difficult to detect because it is often asymptomatic and slow-growing. In some cases, the aneurysm may never rupture. AAA augmentation can be represented by-

  • Back pain.

  • Deep and constant pain in the abdomen or side of the abdomen.

  • Throbbing near the navel.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) can cause symptoms like-

  • Breathing difficulties.

  • Difficulty swallowing.

  • Pain in the jaw, chest and upper back.

  • Hoarseness.

  • Persistent cough.

  • Shortness of breath.

In case of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm, the following symptoms may occur-

  • Blurred or double vision.

  • Pain above and behind one eye and dilated pupil.

  • Numbness on one side of the face.

A ruptured aneurysm can occur with-

  • Blurred or double vision.

  • Confusion.

  • Increased heart rate.

  • Bleeding.

  • Drooping eyelids.

  • Loss of consciousness.

  • Nausea and vomiting.

  • Sensitivity to light.

  • Seizure.

  • Stiff neck.

  • Severe headache.

Diagnosis for Aneurysm

Diagnosing an aneurysm depends on its location. Based on where it is, your doctor might ask you to consult a vascular or cardiothoracic surgeon.

Ultrasound and CT scans are typically used to help diagnose irregularities in the blood vessels.

The CT scans take X-rays of different parts of the body and look for any blockages, disruptions or bulges in the circulatory system.

Treatment for Aneurysm

Treatment for aneurysm depends on its location-

For aneurysm in the chest or abdomen, an endovascular stent graft procedure may be required. Stent grafts are usually over open surgeries as they are less invasive and can be used to reinforce blood vessels and make them stronger.

Lowering blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels is important as well, and you might be recommended medication for that. Lowering blood pressure is important in keeping the aneurysm from rupture.

When to see a doctor?

You need to see a doctor immediately if you suddenly have a severe headache, loss of consciousness, or have other symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm.

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क्या होता है अल्जाइमर रोग? जानें, इसके लक्षण, कारण और बचाव

Posted 24 May, 2022

क्या होता है अल्जाइमर रोग? जानें, इसके लक्षण, कारण और बचाव

अल्जाइमर रोग न्यूरोलॉजिकल (Neurological) अर्थात मस्तिष्क संबंधी विकार है। जो मस्तिष्क की तंत्रिका तंत्र को प्रभावित करता है। इस रोग से पीड़ित व्यक्ति के मस्तिष्क की कोशिकाएं नष्ट होने लगती हैं। जिससे व्यक्ति की याददाश्त कमजोर हो जाती है। साथ ही व्यक्ति का दिमाग ठीक तरह से कार्य नहीं कर पाता। अल्जाइमर यानी भूलने की बीमारी एक तरह का डिमेंशिया (मनोभ्रंश) का प्रकार है। जो मुख्य रूप से मस्तिष्क का दर्द कम करने वाली औषधि आदि का अधिक इस्तेमाल करने से, नींद की दवाओं का ज्यादा उपयोग या मनोवैज्ञानिक विकार आदि से होते हैं। शुरुआती दौर में अल्जाइमर के लक्षण कम नजर आते हैं। लेकिन समय रहते इसका इलाज न कराना या नजरअंदाज कर देने पर यह समस्या गंभीर रूप ले लेती है।


आमतौर पर अल्जाइमर रोग का खतरा वृद्ध आयु वाले लोगों में अधिक रहता है। यह रोग धीरे-धीरे याददाश्त जाना, संज्ञानात्मक क्षमता में कमी  और भूलने की समस्या पैदा करता है। अनुमान के अनुसार भारत में लगभग 40 लाख लोग डिमेंशिया (मनोभ्रंश) से पीड़ित हैं। इन 40 लाख लोगों में से लगभग 16 लाख लोग अल्जाइमर के शिकार हैं। अल्जाइमर जैसे तंत्रिका संबंधी विकार भी भूलने की बीमारी को जन्म देते हैं। भूलने की बीमारी मस्तिष्क के उन क्षेत्रों को नुकसान पहुंचने से होती है, जो याददाश्त के लिए महत्वपूर्ण होते हैं। भूलने की बीमारी स्थायी हो सकती है। इसका कोई विशेष उपचार नहीं है। लेकिन याददाश्त बढ़ाने और मनोवैज्ञानिक तकनीकों से भूलने की बीमारी से पीड़ित लोगों की सहायता की जा सकती है।


अल्जाइमर रोग के चरण

आमतौर पर, अल्जाइमर रोग को 7 चरणों में बांटा गया हैं।  आइए चर्चा करते हैं इन्हीं चरणों के बारे में:


चरण 1. नो कॉग्निटिव इंपेयरमेंट (No Cognitive Impairment)-

यह अल्जाइमर रोग का प्राथमिक चरण हैं। इस दौरान व्यक्ति के स्मृति से संबंधित किसी तरह की समस्या नहीं होती। यहां तक डॉक्टर भी इस स्टेज का पता लगाने में असमर्थ है। क्योंकि इस दौरान व्यक्ति में कोई लक्षण देखने को नहीं मिलते हैं।


चरण 2. मामूली गिरावट (Very Mild Decline)-

अल्जाइमर रोग के इस चरण में लोगों की याददाश्त में थोड़ी गिरावट आने लगती है। इस चरण में व्यक्ति अपने दोस्तों के नाम एवं जरूरत की चीजों जैसे चाबियां, चश्मा एवं अन्य रोजमर्रा की चीजों को रखने की जगह आदि भूलनें लगते हैं।


चरण 3. माइल्ड कॉग्निटिव डिकलाइन (Mild Cognitive Decline)-

अल्जाइमर के तीसरे स्टेज पर रोगी के मानसिक (संज्ञानात्मक) व्यवहार में बदलाव देखने को मिलते हैं। साथ ही व्यक्ति की याददाश्त और एकाग्रता में कमी होने लगती है। इस स्टेज को चिकित्सयी परीक्षण से पता लगाया जा सकता हैं।


चरण 4. माडरेट कॉग्निटिव डिकलाइन (Moderate Cognitive Decline)-

इस चरण तक पहुंचने पर व्यक्ति हाल ही में हुई घटनाओं को काफी हद तक भूल जाता है। इसके अलावा व्यक्ति खुद से जुड़ी हुई बीती बातों को भी भूलने लगता है।


चरण 5. मॉडेरटली सीवियर कॉग्निटिव डिक्लाइन (Moderately Severe Cognitive Decline)-

अल्जाइमर रोग के लक्षण इस चरण में काफी नजर आने लगते हैं। इस दौरान व्यक्ति को मोबाइल नंबर, घर का पता, तारीख, महीना और गिनती भूलना आदि की समस्याएं होने लगती हैं। पर इस स्टेज में व्यक्ति को अपना एवं अपने परिवार वालों का नाम याद रहता है। साथ ही व्यक्ति को भोजन करने और शौचालय इस्तेमाल करने में कोई समस्या नहीं होती।


चरण 6. गंभीर गिरावट (Severe cognitive decline)-

इस चरण में स्मृति से संबंधित समस्याएं गंभीर एवं जटिल हो जाती हैं। इस दौरान व्यक्ति के दैनिक गतिविधियां भी प्रभावित होने लगती हैं। कपड़े पहनने से लेकर बाथरूम इस्तेमाल करने में समस्या, यहां तक कि व्यक्ति अपने घरवालों का नाम तक भूल जाता है। साथ ही उसे अनिद्रा की परेशानी का भी सामना करना पड़ता है।


चरण 7. लेट स्टेज (Very severe cognitive decline)-

यह अल्जाइमर रोग का अंतिम चरण होता है। जो सबसे खतरनाक एवं जटिल समस्या है। इस अवस्था में व्यक्ति प्रतिक्रिया करने, बोलने और शरीर को नियंत्रित करने की क्षमता खो देता है। यहां तक व्यक्ति को भोजन करने और शौचालय जाने में भी सहायता की जरूरत पड़ती है।


अल्जाइमर रोग के लक्षण-

  • याददाश्त कमजोर होना।
  • परिवार के सदस्यों या रिश्तेदारों को पहचान न पाना।
  • किसी भी प्रकार के कार्य करने में परेशानी होना।
  • बोलने व समझने में समस्या उत्पन्न होना।
  • समय और स्थान को लेकर भ्रम होना।
  • निर्णय लेने की क्षमता खत्म हो जाना।
  • सोचने की क्षमता में कमी या परेशानी होना।
  • अपने चीजों को खो देना।
  • बर्ताव में बदलाव होना।
  • व्यक्ति का मानसिक संतुलन बिगड़ जाना।
  • आत्मबल में कमी होना।
  • चिड़चिड़ापन होना।
  • समय के साथ चिंतित होना।

अल्जाइमर रोग के कारण-

संक्रमण का होना-

अल्जाइमर रोग का मुख्य कारण दिमाग में संक्रमण का होना होता है। जिसकी वजह से मस्तिष्क और नर्वस सिस्टम की तंत्रिका कोशिकाएं पूरी तरह से काम नहीं कर पाती या नष्ट हो जाती हैं।


नींद में कमी-

नींद की मात्रा और गुणवत्ता दोनों ही स्मरण शक्ति के लिए बेहद महत्वपूर्ण हैं। बहुत कम नींद लेने या रात में अक्सर जागने से अल्जाइमर की समस्या पैदा हो सकती है।


अवसाद और तनाव-

अल्जाइमर का एक लक्षण अवसाद एवं तनाव भी हैं। अवसाद होने से ध्यान बनाए रखने में परेशानी होती है। जो मस्तिष्क को प्रभावित करती है। तनाव और चिंता एकाग्रता में बाधक बनकर सोचने की क्षमता पर बुरा असर डालते हैं। इसलिए इसका इलाज लंबे समय तक न किया जाए तो तनाव की समस्या काफी हद तक बढ़ सकती है। 


अवसादरोधी दवाइयों के अधिक सेवन से-

कई अवसादरोधी दवाइयां जैसे एंटीडिप्रेससेंट, एंटीहिसटामाइंस, स्ट्रेस निवारक दवाइयां,  मांसपेशियों को ढीला करने वाली दवाइयां, ट्रांक्विलाइज़ेर्स, नींद की गोलियां और सर्जरी के बाद दी जाने वाली दर्द की दवाएं याददाश्त को कमजोर कर सकती हैं।


धूम्रपान और शराब पीने से-

अधिक शराब पीने से भूलने की बीमारी हो सकती है। इसके अलावा धूम्रपान भी मस्तिष्क में ऑक्सीजन की मात्रा को कम कर तंत्रिका तंत्र को हानि पहुंचाता है।


पोषक तत्वों की कमी-

अच्छे और उच्च क्वालिटी वाले प्रोटीन और वसा मस्तिष्क के कार्यों को ठीक रखने के लिए महत्वपूर्ण होते हैं। विटामिन बी 1, बी 12 एवं विटामिन डी की कमी विशेष रूप से मस्तिष्क के नर्व सेल्स को प्रभावित करती हैं।


सिर में चोट-

कई बार सिर की गंभीर चोट मस्तिष्क को घायल कर देती है। जिससे अल्जाइमर की समस्या उत्पन्न हो सकती है।


सिनैप्स लॉस-

सिनैप्स लॉस की वजह से भी अल्जाइमर रोग की समस्या हो सकती है। क्योंकि यह एक न्यूरॉनल जंक्शन होता है, जिनके माध्यम से न्यूरॉन्स एक-दूसरे से संवाद करते हैं।


अल्जाइमर से बचाव एवं घरेलू उपाय-

  • अल्जाइमर से बचने के लिए शारीरिक क्रियाएं जैसे जॉगिंग, डांसिंग, एरोबिक्स, बास्केटबॉल, स्विमिंग और साइकिलिंग करना बेहद फायदेमंद होता है। क्योंकि इससे शरीर में रक्त संचार सुचारू रूप से होता है। जिससे दिमाग को पर्याप्त ऑक्सीजन मिलती है। इससे शरीर में ऊर्जा बनी रहती है और अल्जाइमर का खतरा कम होता है।
  • रोजाना डाइट में विटामिन-ई और ओमेगा-3 फैटी एसिड युक्त भोजन जैसी हरी सब्जियां, फल, फिश, नट्स, ऑलिव ऑयल और विनेगर आदि शामिल करें। इसके अतिरिक्त ग्रीन टी, कॉफी, डार्क चॉकलेट आदि भी दिमाग की खुराक है। इनके सेवन से मस्तिष्क की कार्यक्षमता में सुधार होता है।
  • जिन्कगो बाइलोबा की पत्तियां को महीन पीसकर पेस्ट बना लें। अब इस पेस्ट से आधा कप जूस निकालकर पी लें। ऐसा करने से दिमाग को पर्याप्त ऑक्सीजन, रक्त एवं पोषक तत्व मिलते हैं। साथ ही एकाग्रता बढ़ती है।
  • अल्जाइमर रोग से कुछ हद तक राहत पाने के लिए नारियल तेल का उपयोगी साबित होता है। एनसीबीआई की वेबसाइट पर प्रकाशित एक रिसर्च के मुताबिक, नारियल का तेल मस्तिष्क की कार्यप्रणाली में सुधार करता है। इस तेल को भोजन बनाने हेतु उपयोग किया जाता है। इसके अलावा नारियल के तेल को हल्का गर्म करके सिर की मालिश करना भी अच्छा रहता है।
  • प्रतिदिन 7-8 घंटे की नींद जरूर लें। कम सोने से हिप्पोकैंपस (मस्तिष्क का एक हिस्सा) में नए न्यूरॉन्स का विकास प्रभावित होता है। इससे स्मृति, एकाग्रता एवं निर्णय लेने की क्षमता में कमी आती है। साथ ही शरीर में मौजूद प्रोटीन एमिलॉयड बीटा को असंतुलित करता है। जिससे अल्जाइमर हो सकता है। इसलिए भूलने की बीमारी से बचने के लिए पर्याप्त नींद लेना आवश्यक है।
  • प्राणायाम और ध्यान करें। इससे तनाव दूर होता है। एकाग्रता आती है, दिमाग को पर्याप्त ऑक्सीजन, रक्त एवं पोषक तत्व मिलते हैं।
  • अल्जाइमर से बचने के लिए दिमाग से संबंधित गतिविधियों में हिस्सा लें। क्योंकि ब्रेन गेम- सुडोकू या पहेली, क्विज, शतरंज, लॉजिकल या इलेक्ट्रॉनिक खेल भी दिमाग को तेज करने के हथियार हैं। इसलिए प्रतिदिन आधे से एक घंटे गेम्स खेलने से दिमाग की एक्सरसाइज होती है।
  • सामाजिक गतिविधियो में हिस्सा लें।
  • अवसाद, चिंता एवं तनाव से बचें।
  • धूम्रपान और अल्कोहल का सेवन न करें।
  • वजन को नियंत्रित रखें।
  • ब्लड शुगर, ब्लड प्रेशर और कोलेस्ट्रॉल के स्तर को मेंटेन रखें।
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