Posted 14 July, 2022
Hyperdontia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment
Hyperdontia is an oral condition characterized by the development of an excess number of teeth. The standard number of primary teeth is 20 and permanent teeth is 32. The primary teeth, also known as the deciduous teeth, are the first set of teeth that grows in a person’s mouth. The permanent teeth then replace them, usually erupting completely at age of 21. Affected individuals can have extra primary or permanent teeth.
These extra teeth are sometimes called supernumerary teeth and can appear in any area of the dental arch (the curved area where the teeth attach to the jaw). The additional teeth may be small in number or many, and their arrangement may be symmetrical or non-symmetrical.
Types of Hyperdontia
Supernumerary teeth are categorized based on their shape and position in the mouth.
Following is the classification based on its shape-
- Supplemental-the tooth is shaped similarly to the type of tooth it grows near.
- Tuberculate- the tooth has a barrel-like shape.
- Conical-the tooth is shaped like a peg, with a wide base and narrows out at the top.
- Compound odontoma- the tooth consists of multiple small, tooth-like growths near each other.
- Complex odontoma-a disorganized mass of tooth-like tissue growth.
Following are the types of extra supernumerary teeth based on their location-
- Paramolar-An extra tooth at the back of the mouth that grows next to a molar.
- Distomolar-The tooth grows in line with your other molars, not around them.
- Mesiodens-This is the most common type of tooth for people with hyperdontia. This indicates that extra tooth growing behind or around the incisors (the four teeth at the front of the mouth that are used for biting).
Symptoms of Hyperdontia
The main symptom of hyperdontia is the growth of additional teeth just behind or near the primary or permanent teeth.
When the extra teeth put pressure on the jaw and gums, following symptoms may occur-
- Pain and swelling.
- Formation of cysts and polyps.
- Teeth crowding.
Causes of Hyperdontia
The exact cause of hyperdontia is unknown. However, it is believed that there may be a genetic factor along with some evidence of environmental factors leading to the condition.
Another possible cause is an over activity of the dental lamina during development. The dental lamina is the area of cells that initiates the formation of the tooth germ that forms the tooth. Hyperdontia appears to be associated with several hereditary diseases, including-
- Fabry disease.
- Gardner’s syndrome.
- Ehlers- Danlos syndrome.
- Cleft palate and lip.
- Cleidocranial dysplasia.
- Marfan syndrome.
- Sturge-weber syndrome.
- Orofaciodigital syndrome.
Risk Factors of Hyperdontia
Genetic disorders are common risk factors, and even in the absence of genetic disorders, hyperdontia can occur in many family members.
It occurs more often in permanent teeth than in primary teeth and is twice as common in men than in women. 98% of hyperdontia is usually seen in the upper jaw than in the lower jaw. The front teeth are affected more often than the side teeth or the molar teeth region.
Diagnosis for Hyperdontia
If the extra teeth have already erupted or grown, diagnosing the condition is very easy.
- A routine dental X ray is a must if they are in a primary stage.
- The doctor may also use a CT scan to get a more detailed look at your mouth, teeth and jaw.
Treatment for Hyperdontia
Since the majority of supernumerary teeth will cause clinical problems, detecting and treating them as soon as possible is very important.
Treatment generally consists of removing the teeth. Treatment depends on whether hyperdontia causes complications such as-
- Difficulty in eating or chewing.
- In case of gingivitis, problems in brushing teeth.
- Crooked teeth or overcrowding of teeth.
- Delayed eruption of permanent teeth.
- In case of unerupted damage to permanent teeth.
- Discomfort due to the extra teeth.
When to visit a dentist?
The best time to visit the dentist is when you have-
- Swelling or pain in the mouth.
- Extra teeth not in line with the surrounding teeth.
- Delayed eruption of permanent teeth.
- Any discomfort in the mouth.
- Crooked teeth.