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Causes, Symptoms and Treatment methods of Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria

Causes, Symptoms and Treatment methods of Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria

2022-03-11 00:00:00

Infectious diseases should be treated without delay because failing to do so may increase the risk of spread. These infectious diseases include Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria which are spread through viral infection. These diseases mostly occur during or after the rainy season (October-November) because mosquitoes are found abundantly during this time. It is a type of carrier borne disease. A carrier is an organism that does not itself cause disease but other parasites (malaria) and viruses (dengue and chikungunya) are transmitted from infected person to uninfected person. Let us discuss the various causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria through the sections of this blog.


How are Dengue, Chikungunya and Malaria spread?

Chikungunya and dengue are infectious diseases caused by a virus which is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito called Aedes aegypti. It is a type of viral fever. Aedes mosquitoes are found in abundance during the rainy season. These mosquitoes usually lay eggs in open and clean water collected in and around homes, schools and other buildings. Mostly these mosquitoes bite during the day time.


Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. The disease is spread through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito that thrive in dirty water. These mosquitoes mostly bite after sunset (evening and night). Mosquitoes of the Anopheles species can transmit malaria only if they themselves have been infected with malaria-infected blood.

Symptoms of Chikungunya and Dengue

The general symptoms of Chikungunya and Dengue are similar but there are differences at some level. The symptoms of dengue include weakness in the body whereas the problem of pain in the body of a person suffering from chikungunya is prominent. The most important feature of dengue is that due to this, platelets in the body start decreasing continuously. Whereas in Chikungunya the platelet count does not decrease. Apart from this, other symptoms of Chikungunya and Dengue are similar. Let's talk about these common symptoms-

  • High fever with severe joint pain.
  • Sharp shivering (cold) feeling.
  • Pain in muscles.
  • Having a headache.
  • Sore throat.
  • Vomiting and nausea.
  • Loss of appetite, feeling tired.
  • Bad taste in mouth.
  • Red rashes on the skin.
  • Pain in the back of the eyes.

Symptoms of Malaria

Usually in malaria, fever occurs at an interval of one day and the patient feels shivering (cold) along with fever. Apart from this, there are many other symptoms of this disease which are as follows-

  • Sudden chills with high fever.
  • Vomiting and nausea.
  • Feeling more tired.
  • Weakness.
  • Fever persists after one, two or three days.

Causes of Dengue and Chikungunya

Dengue and Chikungunya are caused by the bite of the Aedes mosquito. Chikungunya is caused by the genus Alphavirus, while Dengue is caused by the genus Flavivirus. Apart from this, dengue is also caused by four other viruses, which are as follows - DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4. Both diseases are caused by the bite of the Aedes mosquito and the initial symptom is fever.

When a mosquito, which spreads Chikungunya or Dengue, bites an infected person, then this virus comes in his saliva. After this, the person who gets bitten also gets chikungunya or dengue. Apart from this, Chikungunya is a long-lasting type of joint disease in which there is severe pain in the joints along with fever. The acute phase of this disease lasts for 2-5 days but the joint pain persists for months. The same person suffering from dengue is capable of spreading this infection for the next seven days.

Types of dengue fever

In most cases, a mosquito bite causes a mild fever. Despite this, there are three types of dengue fever. which are the following-

Normal dengue fever-

It is also known as classical fever which lasts for about 5 to 7 days, after which the patient starts recovering. This type of dengue fever is found in most of the cases. The symptoms of which are similar to Chikungunya which have been mentioned above.



Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)-

In this type of dengue fever, along with the general symptoms (above), other symptoms appear. Let us know about these symptoms-

  • Bleeding from nose and gums.
  • Blood in defecation or vomit.
  • Small or large marks of dark blue-black color on the skin.

Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)-

In this fever, along with the symptoms of DHF, some symptoms of the 'shock' stage are also seen. These are-

  • Patient's discomfort.
  • Coolness of his skin in spite of high fever.
  • The patient gradually faints.
  • Sometimes the pulse of the patient is fast and sometimes slow and his blood pressure is low.

Causes of Malaria

Malaria is caused by a type of parasite which is called Plasmodium. This virus is transmitted in the bloodstream of humans through the bite of an infected female mosquito called Anopheles. These microbes are so small that they cannot even be seen. Malaria is spread in our body due to five types of Plasmodium parasite. Of these, three main types are responsible for most cases of malaria. These main types are-

Plasmodium falciparum-

It is the most common type of malaria parasite. Worldwide, the majority of malaria deaths are caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. Symptoms include vomiting, fever, headache, back pain, dizziness, fatigue and abdominal pain.

Plasmodium vivax-

About 60 percent of malaria cases in India are caused by Plasmodium vivax. It has symptoms like fever, cold, fatigue and diarrhea. This parasite causes milder symptoms of malaria than Plasmodium falciparum but Plasmodium vivax can live in the liver for about three years due to which this disease can reoccur repeatedly.

Plasmodium ovale-

This parasite is uncommon and commonly found in West Africa. It can live in a person's liver for many years without showing any symptoms of malaria.

Prevention methods for Dengue, Chikungunya and Malaria

  • Do not allow water logging in or near the house.
  • Fumigate houses with neem leaves daily during the rainy season.
  • Keep the kitchen and washroom dry.
  • Do not leave open vessels with stagnant water.
  • Change the cooler and pot water daily.
  • Install mesh on windows and doors.
  • Keep the lids of the water tanks tightly closed.
  • Apply anti-mosquito cream or mustard oil on the body.
  • Wear clothes that cover the whole body.
  • Use a mosquito net while sleeping.
  • Spray mosquito repellent around the house.
  • Empty the water tank once a week.

Home remedies for Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya

  • Use a decoction made from basil leaves in dengue and chikungunya disease. By doing this, the immunity of the body increases leading to fast recovery.
  • Grind 8-10 basil leaves and 6-8 black peppercorns and take it with honey in the morning and evening, it provides relief in malarial fever.
  • Giloy is considered an elixir for the treatment of malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Taking Giloy's tablet or decoction in the morning and evening provides relief. Apart from this, drinking a decoction of basil with Giloy, dry ginger, chhoti pippali and jaggery is also beneficial in chikungunya and dengue.
  • Drinking the juice of papaya leaves provides relief in diseases like dengue and chikungunya. This increases the platelets count in the body.
  • Make a powder by mixing dry ginger (sonth) and ground coriander in equal quantities. Consume it regularly thrice a day with lukewarm water. By doing this, there is benefit in malaria.
  • Coconut water is very beneficial for dengue and chikungunya.
  • Use buttermilk regularly in case of recurrent malarial fever.
  • Boiling 4-5 neem leaves in a cup of water and drinking it is very beneficial in dengue and chikungunya.
  • Consuming guava is beneficial in dengue, malaria, and chikungunya because it is rich in Vitamin C and many other nutrients.
  • In dengue, malaria, and chikungunya, eat light and nutrient-rich diets like porridge, khichdi, etc.
  • Giving lemon water mixed with black pepper and rock salt provides relief to a person suffering from dengue, malaria, and chikungunya. Apart from this, feeding by sprinkling black pepper and rock salt on apples is also beneficial.
  • Drink plenty of water in case of Chikungunya and Dengue fever because drinking water removes toxic bacteria from the body through urine.
  • Mix equal amounts of garlic juice and sesame oil and apply it on the soles of the hands and feet. This provides relief in malarial fever.
  • Vegetable soup is very beneficial in curing these diseases. Tomato soup is especially beneficial in chikungunya and dengue.

When to go to the doctor?

  • In case of severe pain and burning in the eyes.
  • In case of severe stomach pain.
  • Intermittent dizziness.
  • Vomiting.
  • Bleeding in nose, gums, ears or defecation.
  • Excessive weakness and fainting.
  • If the fever is more than 102 degrees or if it does not improve for two consecutive days, then consult a doctor immediately.

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The informative content furnished in the blog section is not intended and should never be considered a substitution for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment of any health concern. This blog does not guarantee that the remedies listed will treat the medical condition or act as an alternative to professional health care advice. We do not recommend using the remedies listed in these blogs as second opinions or specific treatments. If a person has any concerns related to their health, they should consult with their health care provider or seek other professional medical treatment immediately. Do not disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it based on the content of this blog.