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स्वाइन फ्लू के लक्षण, कारण और उपचार

Posted 24 November, 2022

स्वाइन फ्लू के लक्षण, कारण और उपचार

स्वाइन फ्लू को एच1एन1 फ्लू के नाम से भी जाना जाता है। यह एक प्रकार का वायरल संक्रमण होता है, जो मूल रूप से सूअरों से मनुष्यों में फैलता । इसलिए इसे स्वाइन फ्लू कहा जाता है। हालांकि इन दिनों यह संक्रमण इतना खतरनाक हो गया है कि एक संक्रमित व्यक्ति से दूसरे असंक्रमित व्यक्ति में फैलने लगा है। आमतौर इसके लक्षण सामान्यतः फ्लू की तरह ही दिखाई देते हैं। यहीं कारण है कि स्वाइन फ्लू मौसमी फ्लू का कारण बनता है।

जब कोई संक्रमित व्यक्ति खांसता या छींकता है। इस स्थिति में इसके विषाणु हवा में फैल जाते हैं। जिससे यह स्वस्थ व्यक्तियों को भी संक्रमित कर देते हैं। जिस कारण यह श्वास के जरिए फैलने वाली बीमारी होती है। इस संक्रमण को बदलते मौसम का संकेत मानकर नजर अंदाज न करें। ऐसा करना जानलेवा साबित हो सकता है।

स्वाइन फ्लू के लक्षण

आमतौर H1N1 वायरस के कारण होने वाले फ्लू के समान सर्दी-जुकाम की तरह ही होते हैं। इसके आम लक्षण निम्नलिखित हैं:

  • अधिक बुखार।
  • खांसी आना।
  • गले में खराश।
  • मांसपेशियों और जोड़ों में अधिक दर्द होना।
  • अधिक थकान महसूस करना।
  • नाक बहना।
  • आंखों से पानी आना।
  • ठंड लगना।
  • आवाज बैठना।
  • सिर दर्द होना।
  • दस्त लगना।
  • मतली और उल्टी होना।
  • फ्लू के लक्षण वायरस के संपर्क में आने के लगभग एक से तीन दिन बाद दिखाई देते हैं।

स्वाइन फ्लू के कारण-

स्वाइन फ्लू आमतौर से संक्रमित सूअरों की बूंदों या स्राव के संपर्क में आने से फैलता है। वहीं, मनुष्य इन संवेदनशील जानवरों के निकट संपर्क में आने पर संक्रमित हो जाते हैं। इसके बाद संक्रमित व्यक्ति के माध्यम से यह असंक्रमित व्यक्ति में प्रसारित होता है। यह मुख्यतः जानवरों के मल, नाक के स्राव, मुंह के लार या आंखों से निकलने वाले पानी के संपर्क में आने से फैलता है। इसके अलावा संक्रमित जानवरों के कच्चे या अधपके मांस के सेवन से भी स्वाइन फ्लू हो जाता है। यह स्वाइन फ्लू का अत्यधिक संक्रामक कारण है। इसके अलावा अन्य कारण निम्न हैं।

  • छींक आना।
  • खांसना।
  • कीटाणुओं या संक्रमित व्यक्ति के द्वारा स्पर्श किए गए जगहों को छूने पर।

स्वाइन फ्लू होने के जोखिम कारक-

आमतौर पर बच्चों और युवा वयस्कों में स्वाइन फ्लू का होना सबसे आम है। ज्यादातर इसका खतरा उन लोगों को होता है, जो लोग संक्रमित बाहुल्य क्षेत्र में रहते हैं। इसके अलावा कुछ लोगों को स्वाइन फ्लू होने पर गंभीर रूप से बीमार होने का खतरा अधिक होता है। जिसमें निम्नलिखित शामिल हैं:

  • 65 वर्ष से अधिक उम्र के वयस्क।
  • 5 साल से कम उम्र के बच्चे।
  • युवा वयस्क और 19 वर्ष से कम उम्र के बच्चे लंबे समय से एस्पिरिन (बफर) थेरेपी करा रहे हो।
  • कमजोर प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली (एड्स जैसी बीमारियों से ग्रसित) वाले लोग।
  • गर्भवती महिलाएं।
  • अस्थमा, हृदय रोग, मधुमेह या न्यूरोमस्कुलर जैसी विकारों से पीड़ित व्यक्ति।

स्वाइन फ्लू की रोकथाम और उपचार

स्वाइन फ्लू की रोकथाम के लिए सबसे महत्वपूर्ण फ्लू टीकाकरण है। इसके अलावा कुछ खान-पान में बदलाव एवं सावधानी बरतकर इससे बचा जा सकता हैं। आइए बात करते हैं इन सावधानियों के बारे में

  • अपने हाथों को नियमित रूप से गर्म पानी या साबुन से धोएं।
  • स्वाइन फ्लू के संक्रमण के दौरान मांसाहारी भोजन का सेवन न करें।
  • खांसते वक्त मुंह को रुमाल या टिश्यू से ढकें।
  • संक्रमण से बचने के लिए सर्दी-जुकाम से ग्रसित होने पर लोगों से दूर रहें।
  • स्वाइन फ्लू के मरीज पूरी तरह से आराम करें।
  • संक्रमित व्यक्ति या दूषित जगह से दूरी बनाएं।
  • डॉक्टर के दिशा निर्देशों का पालन करें।

स्वाइन फ्लू का इलाज कैसे किया जाता है?

सामान्यतः सर्दी-जुकाम को ठीक करने वाली कुछ एंटीवायरल दवाएं एच1एन1 स्वाइन फ्लू के इलाज में काम करती हैं। इसके लिए एंटीवायरल दवाएँ दवाओं जैसे ओसेल्टामिविर (टैमीफ्लू) और ज़ानामिविर (रिलेंज़ा) प्रभावी ढंग से काम करतीं हैं।

यह दवाएं व्यक्ति को स्वाइन फ्लू से तेजी से उबरने में मदद करती हैं। साथ ही इसे गंभीर होने से बचाती हैं। यह दवाएं शुरुआती लक्षण के 48 घंटों के अंदर सेवन करने पर अच्छा काम करते हैं।

स्वाइन फ्लू के घरेलू उपचार-

लहसुन-

लहसुन में मौजूद एलिसिन शरीर में एंटीऑक्सीडेंट गतिविधि को उत्तेजित करता है। जिससे प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली की क्षमता को बढ़ाने में मदद मिलती है। इसके लिए रोजाना सुबह खाली पेट लहसुन की दो कलियों का गर्म पानी के साथ सेवन करें।

तुलसी-

तुलसी संक्रमणों को दूर करके गले और फेफड़ों को स्वस्थ रखती है। साथ ही रोग-प्रतिरोधक क्षमता को बढाती है। इस प्रकार यह स्वाइन फ्लू के लक्षणों को कम करने में सहायक होती है।

जिनसेंग-

जिनसेंग एक रोग-प्रतिरोधक क्षमता बढ़ाने वाली जड़ी बूटी के रूप में जनि जाती है। यह इंटरफेरॉन उत्पादन को बढ़ाकर अस्थि मज्जा का समर्थन करता है। इस प्रकार यह जड़ी-बूटी रोगजनकों से लड़ने में मदद करती है। जिससे स्वाइन फ्लू के लक्षणों को कम किया जा सकता है।

हल्दी-

हल्दी अपने एंटी इंफ्लेमेंटरी गुणों के लिए जानी जाती है। जो इम्यूनोप्रोटेक्टिव एजेंटों को उत्तेजित करने का भी काम करती है। जिससे स्वाइन फ्लू के जोखिम को कम करने में मदद मिलती है। इसके लिए एक गिलास गर्म पानी में एक चुटकी हल्दी का चूर्ण मिलाकर इसका सेवन करें।

आंवला-

अपने शरीर को स्वाइन फ्लू और कई अन्य संक्रमणों से बचाने के लिए रोजाना आंवला खाएं। इसके अलावा आंवले के रस का सेवन भी फायदेमंद होता है।

जैतून का पौधा-

जैतून हर्ब में पॉलीफेनोल्स और फ्लेवोनोइड्स की उच्च मात्रा पाई जाती है। यह मतली, बुखार, ठंड लगना और सिरदर्द जैसे लक्षणों को प्रभावी ढंग से ठीक करने में मदद करते हैं।

विटामिन सी युक्त फल-

विटामिन सी युक्त फलों का सेवन स्वाइन फ्लू को ठीक करने में फायदेमंद होता है। यह रोग-प्रतिरोधक क्षमता बढ़ाने में मदद करता है। इसलिए अपने दैनिक जीवन में विटामिन सी युक्त संतरे, नीबू, स्ट्रॉबेरी और अन्य खट्टे फलों को शामिल करना चाहिए।

खूब पानी पिएं-

स्वाइन फ्लू के दौरान उल्टी, बार-बार पेशाब आना, अधिक पसीना आना और डायरिया जैसे लक्षण होते हैं। ऐसे में पानी का सेवन फायदेमंद होता है। यह शरीर को हाइड्रेटेड रखता है। साथ ही पानी शरीर से विषाक्त पदार्थों को निकालने में मदद करता है। इसलिए प्रतिदिन पर्याप्त मात्रा में पानी पिएं।

कब जाएं डॉक्टर के पास?

यदि आप स्वाइन फ्लू बाहुल्य क्षेत्र में रहते हैं। इस स्थिति में फ्लू के लक्षण जैसे बुखार, शरीर में दर्द, नाक बहना, गले में खराश, मतली, उल्टी या दस्त नजर आए तो तुरंत अपने डॉक्टर से परामर्श लें।

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What is Konasana? Know its types and health benefits

Posted 16 November, 2022

What is Konasana? Know its types and health benefits

Konasana is a type of yoga considered immensely beneficial for the body. "Konasana" is composed of two words- “kona”, which means corner, and the second asana, which means posture, which means while practicing this yoga, the shape of the body becomes an angle-like posture. In this posture, the body has to be balanced and stand in the shape of an angle. This asana is known as Angle Pose. It has many physical and mental health benefits, ranging from feet to hands and many other parts of the body.

Types and method of doing Konasana

Although Konasana is done in many ways, this posture mentioned in Yogashastra is usually done in two ways. Let us know about the types and methods of these asanas-

Konasana I-

  • First of all, stand straight on the yoga mat.
  • Make sure that the distance between both the legs is parallel to the hip and keep the hands by the side of the body.
  • Now breathing slowly, raise your left hand in such a way that the fingers remain in the direction of the ceiling.
  • After that, while exhaling slowly, bend to your right side.
  • While bending to the left, bend a little more. Note that the left hand should remain vertically upwards.
  • Now lift your head up and look at your left hand. Do not bend the elbows.
  • Now take a long breath and release it.
  • While breathing, bring your body back to its original position.
  • After that, while exhaling slowly, bring the left hand down.

Konasana II-

  • Stand on a yoga mat while spreading both your legs.
  • Stand so that there is a gap of 2 feet between the feet and the body should remain in a balanced posture.
  • Now while breathing slowly, spread both your hands and stretch them above your head.
  • After that, join the fingers of the palm in such a way that the hands come into a dome state. Make sure your hands touch the ear.
  • Now while exhaling slowly, bend to the right side. Do not bend the hands at the elbows.
  • After that, while taking your body to the left, bend a little more so that the body remains stretched. In this position, take a deep breath and exhale slowly.
  • Come back to your initial position while breathing again.
  • While exhaling slowly, bring the left hand down.
  • Now repeat this process from the left side.
  • Do this cycle of Konasana at least 4-5 times.

Health benefits of Konasana

You get many health benefits by doing this asana, but some important benefits are as follows-

  • By doing this asana, the spine, thighs, and arms get strengthened.
  • It helps to make the spine flexible.
  • It helps in relieving back pain.
  • This asana improves the functioning of the lungs.
  • This mudra is extremely beneficial for improving blood circulation.
  • Continuously practicing it proves to be very effective for sciatica.
  • It is helpful in relieving constipation or other digestive problems.
  • This yoga practice purifies the blood.
  • This yoga helps to provide energy to the body.

Take these precautions while doing Konasana

  • Practice konasana slowly, so that the body does not get jerked.
  • Do not put too much pressure on any part of the body during yoga.
  • If someone is suffering from acute back pain and problems like spondylitis, then he should not practice this posture.
  • Avoid doing this asana if you have a fever, nervousness, abdominal pain, or any other physical problem.
  • Pregnant women should avoid doing this asana.
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10 Signs that You Have Diabetes

Posted 27 September, 2022

10 Signs that You Have Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when blood sugar is too high, and this can be caused by insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes) or an inability to produce insulin (type 1 diabetes).

Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. In contrast, type 2 diabetes can develop at any age but is more common in the older population.

Early Signs of Diabetes

  • Excessive thirst and increased urinationExcessive thirst and increased urination are common signs of diabetes. When you are suffering from diabetes, excess glucose builds up in your blood. Your kidneys are forced to work hard to filter and absorb the excess glucose. When your kidneys can’t keep up, the excess glucose is excreted into your urine, dragged along by the tissues, which makes you dehydrated. This will usually leave you feeling thirsty, and as you drink more fluids to quench your thirst, you will urinate even more.
  • Develop urinary tract, yeast or vaginal infections frequently Sometimes, OB-GYNs help to diagnose diabetes based on an increased frequency of vaginal infections or yeast infections. Diabetes causes changes in the immune system that can increase the risk of developing other infections. Irregular menstrual cycles or miscarriages can also be signs of diabetes.
  • Experience occasional blurred vision Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to a condition called diabetic retinopathy, which affects your vision. High blood sugar draws fluid from your tissues, including the lenses of your eyes. This affects your ability to focus. Eye doctors sometimes play a role in helping to diagnose diabetes because of the visual symptoms that can arise. Left untreated, diabetes can cause new blood vessels to form in your retina (the black part of your eye) and damage established vessels, which leads to vision loss and blindness.
  • Slow-healing sores or frequent infections High blood sugar levels can lead to poor circulation of blood and interfere with your body's natural healing process. Due to this, people with diabetes may notice slow-healing sores, especially on the feet. In women with diabetes, bladder and vaginal infections may occur most often.
  • Experience unintentional weight lossMany people want to lose weight, but the weight loss that occurs when you have uncontrolled diabetes is not a healthy way to lose weight. It happens because your body can’t properly use insulin to help process glucose (a sugar found in your food), so your body starts to process fat and muscles for fuel.
  • Tingling hands and feetToo much glucose in your blood can affect how your nerves work. You may feel tingling and loss of feeling in your hands and feet, and a burning pain in your arms, hands, legs, and feet.
  • Red, swollen, tender gums Diabetes may weaken your ability to fight germs, which increases the risk of infections in your gums and in the bones that hold your teeth in place. Your gums may pull away from your teeth, which may become loose, or you may develop sores or pockets filled with pus in your gums, especially if you have gingivitis before diabetes develops.
  • Skin discolorationInsulin resistance can cause dark spots (acanthosis nigricans), which are usually found in the folds of the neck, armpits, or groin. This dark skin can appear lifted and have a velvety texture.
  • FatigueWhen your blood sugar level is high, your body works hard to get rid of the excess sugar. This process not only affects your body but also changes the way your body uses glucose for energy. Blood sugar that is too high, or hyperglycemia, has exhausting effects, among other symptoms. In addition, dehydration, which is associated with increased urination, is a common cause of fatigue in people with diabetes.
  • Increase in appetiteWhen glucose is pulled from the body's cells, the body's energy level drops. This in turn triggers a hunger response. So, even if a person eats right, the inability to regulate blood sugar does not match the cellular energy levels in the body. In simple terms, the body does not receive the required energy even after eating, and thus signals more energy and the person feels hungry.

When to visit a doctor?

You should call your doctor if you have high blood sugar throughout the day, if you find that your blood sugar is always high at the same time, or if you are experiencing the symptoms mentioned in this blog, a lot more than usual.

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अटैक्सिया के कारण, लक्षण और उपचार

Posted 26 September, 2022

अटैक्सिया के कारण, लक्षण और उपचार

अटैक्सिया या गतिभंग एक ऐसी बीमारी होती है। जिससे पीड़ित व्यक्ति किसी भी प्रकार का काम करने में असमर्थ रहता है। आमतौर पर यह स्थिति मांसपेशियों में नियंत्रण में कमी के कारण होता है। जिससे व्यक्ति को कई शारीरिक एवं मानसिक समस्याओं जैसेचलना, फिरना, स्पष्ट रूप से बोलना, भोजन को निगलना, वस्तुओं को उठाना और अन्य गतिविधियों को करने में कठिनाई का सामना करना पड़ता है।

आमतौर पर गतिभंग मस्तिष्क के उस हिस्से को पंहुचे नुकसान का परिणाम होता है, जो मांसपेशियों के समन्वय (सेरिबैलम) को नियंत्रित करता है। यह मुख्य रूप से शराब के अधिक सेवन, कुछ दवाओं के अधिक सेवन, स्ट्रोक, ट्यूमर, सेरेब्रल पाल्सी, मस्तिष्क अध: पतन और मल्टीपल स्केलेरोसिस जैसी विभिन्न स्थितियों के परिणामस्वरूप होता है। इसके अलावा वंशानुगत दोषपूर्ण जीन भी इस स्थिति का कारण बन सकते हैं।

अटैक्सिया (गतिभंग) के प्रकार

शरीर के प्रभावित अंगों के आधार पर गतिभंग के मुख्य रूप से तीन प्रकार होते हैं। यह सेंसरी, सेरेबेलर और वेस्टिबुलर गतिभंग हैं-

  • सेंसरी अटैक्सिया इस प्रकार का गतिभंग सोमाटोसेंसरी तंत्रिका तंत्र को नुकसान के कारण होता है। यह आमतौर पर दृष्टि और श्रवण जैसे संवेदी प्रतिक्रिया को प्रभावित करता है। जिससे समन्वय बनाए रखना मुश्किल हो जाता है।
  • सेरेबेलर अटैक्सिया इस प्रकार के गतिभंग के लक्षण तब दिखाई देते हैं जब अनुमस्तिष्क (मस्तिष्क का वह भाग जो समन्वय को नियंत्रित करता है) में क्षति होती है।
  • वेस्टिबुलर अटैक्सिया-इस प्रकार का अटैक्सिया वेस्टिबुलर सिस्टम अर्थात कान के आतंरिक हिस्सों को प्रभावित करते हैं। जिससे चक्कर आना, मतली और सीधी रेखा में चलने में कठिनाई जैसे लक्षण नजर आते हैं।

अटैक्सिया के लक्षण-

अटैक्सिया के कुछ सामान्य लक्षण निम्नलिखित हैं-

  • स्पष्ट रूप से बोलने में कठिनाई होना। खड़े होने और चलने में परेशानी होना।
  • संतुलन और समन्वय खो देना।
  • भोजन को चबाने और निगलने में कठिनाई महसूस करना।
  • हाथों या पैरों का असंतुलन (आपसी तालमेल न) होना।
  • आंखों की गतिविधिया स्वयं होना।
  • हृदय विकार।
  • फेफड़ों में संक्रमण होना।
  • झटके आना।

अटैक्सिया रोग में, तंत्रिका तंत्र का एक विशेष भाग क्षतिग्रस्त या निष्क्रिय हो जाता है। सेरेबेलर अटैक्सिया नामक सबसे आम प्रकार अनुमस्तिष्क में पाया जाता है। सेंसरी गतिभंग, जो रीढ़ और परिधीय तंत्रिका तंत्र को प्रभावित करता है। साथ ही वेस्टिबुलर गतिभंग, जो आंतरिक कान और श्रवण नलिकाओं को प्रभावित करता है।

क्या अटैक्सिया को रोका जा सकता है?

वैसे तो अटैक्सिया का कोई इलाज नहीं है लेकिन उचित उपचार से लक्षणों को कम या प्रबंधित किया जा सकता है। अटैक्सिया होने के पीछे कई संभावित कारण हैं और यह किसी भी उम्र में हो सकता है। हालांकि, एक स्वस्थ जीवन शैली और अपने दिनचर्या में बदलाव करके स्ट्रोक और कैंसर सहित गतिभंग से जुड़ी कुछ स्थितियों के जोखिम को भी कम किया जा सकता है।

अटैक्सिया के कारण-

मस्तिष्क के उन हिस्सों में तंत्रिका कोशिकाओं की क्षति या हानि, जो मांसपेशियों के समन्वय (सेरिबैलम) को नियंत्रित करती है। अटैक्सिया यानी गतिभंग का कारण बनते हैं। सामान्यतः सेरिबैलम ब्रेनस्टेम के पास मस्तिष्क के आधार पर स्थित ऊतक के दो मुड़े हुए टुकड़ों से बना होता है। मस्तिष्क का यह क्षेत्र संतुलन, आंखों की गति, निगलने और बोलने में मदद करता है। रीढ़ की हड्डी और सेरिबैलम को मांसपेशियों से जोड़ने वाली परिधीय नसों को नुकसान पहुंचाने वाले रोग भी अटैक्सिया का कारण बन सकते हैं। अटैक्सिया होने के प्रमुख कारण निम्नलिखित हैं-

  • सिर की चोट सिर पर चोट लगने से मस्तिष्क या रीढ़ की हड्डी को नुकसान पहुंचता है, जो किसी वाहन दुर्घटना में हो सकता है। यह अचानक और तीव्र सेरेबेलर अटैक्सिया का कारण बनता है।
  • स्ट्रोकमस्तिष्क में रुकावट या रक्तस्राव से गतिभंग हो सकता है। यह स्थिति तब होती है, जब मस्तिष्क के कुछ हिस्सों में रक्त का प्रवाह बंद या गंभीर रूप से कम हो जाता है। जिससे मस्तिष्क के ऊतकों में ऑक्सीजन और पोषक तत्वों की कमी हो जाती है। इसके परिणामस्वरूप मस्तिष्क की कोशिकाएं मर जाती हैं।
  • सेरेब्रल पाल्सी-आमतौर पर यह बीमारी बच्चों के मस्तिष्क के प्रारंभिक विकास के दौरान, जन्म से पहले, जन्म के दौरान या उसके तुरंत बाद के नुकसान के कारण होता है। जो बच्चों के शरीर की गतिविधियों को नियंत्रण करने वाली क्षमताओं को प्रभावित करता है।
  • ऑटोइम्यून रोग- मल्टीपल स्केलेरोसिस, सारकॉइडोसिस, सीलिएक रोग और अन्य ऑटोइम्यून रोग अटैक्सिया का कारण बनते हैं।
  • पैरानियोप्लास्टिक सिंड्रोमयह एक दुर्लभ, अपक्षयी बीमारी है, जो प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली की एक घातक ट्यूमर (नियोप्लाज्म) की प्रतिक्रिया के कारण होती है। आमतौर पर यह फेफड़े, डिम्बग्रंथि, स्तन या लिम्फ कैंसर है। इसलिए कैंसर के निदान के महीनों या वर्षों पहले गतिभंग हो सकता है।
  • मस्तिष्क में असामान्यताएंमस्तिष्क में एक संक्रमित अंग (फोड़ा) गतिभंग का कारण बनता है। मस्तिष्क में कैंसर (घातक) या गैर-कैंसरयुक्त वृद्धि सेरिबैलम को नुकसान पहुंचाती है।
  • ऑटोइम्यून रोग- मल्टीपल स्केलेरोसिस, सारकॉइडोसिस, सीलिएक रोग और अन्य ऑटोइम्यून रोग अटैक्सिया का कारण बनते हैं।
  • मस्तिष्क में असामान्यताएंमस्तिष्क में एक संक्रमित अंग (फोड़ा) गतिभंग का कारण बनता है। मस्तिष्क में कैंसर (घातक) या गैर-कैंसरयुक्त वृद्धि सेरिबैलम को नुकसान पहुंचाती है।
  • विषाक्त प्रतिक्रिया- गतिभंग कुछ दवाओं का एक संभावित दुष्प्रभाव है। जिसमें विशेष रूप से बार्बिटुरेट्स जैसे फेनोबार्बिटोल; बेंज़ोडायजेपाइन जैसे शामक एंटी एपिलेप्टिक जैसे फ़िनाइटोइन और कुछ प्रकार की कीमोथेरेपी शामिल हैं। साथ ही विटामिन बी-6 विषाक्तता भी अटैक्सिया का कारण बनती है। इसके अलावा यदि आप कुछ दवाएं ले रहे हैं, वह भी उम्र से संबंधित समस्याएं पैदा कर सकती हैं।
  • शराब और नशीली दवाओं की विषाक्तता-सीसा या पारा जैसी अधिक धातु विषाक्तता और विलायक विषाक्तता जैसे कि पेंट थिनर, भी गतिभंग का कारण बनता है।
  • विटामिन ई, विटामिन बी-12, या थायमिन की कमीइन विटामिनों का पर्याप्त मात्रा में सेवन करने में असमर्थता, शराब के दुरुपयोग या अन्य कारणों से इन पोषक तत्वों की कमी का होना भी अटैक्सिया का कारण बनता है।
  • थायराइडहाइपोथायरायडिज्म और हाइपरथायरायडिज्म गतिभंग का कारण बन सकता है।
  • कोविड 19 संक्रमणयह संक्रमण गतिभंग का कारण बन सकता है। लेकिन आमतौर पर यह बहुत गंभीर मामलों में होता है।

अटैक्सिया के उपचार-

अटैक्सिया के उपचार रोग के कारण पर निर्भर करता है। यदि अटैक्सिया किसी अन्य बीमारी का लक्षण है, तो अंतर्निहित बीमारी का इलाज किया जाना चाहिए। अंतर्निहित बीमारी का इलाज करने से लक्षणों को कम करने में मदद मिलती है।

उदाहरण के लिए, यदि किसी व्यक्ति को अटैक्सिया होने का मुख्य कारण स्ट्रोक है, तो इस स्थिति में उसका एकाधिक स्क्लेरोसिस के लिए सहायता दी जाती है। विटामिन की कमी के लिए विटामिन की खुराक लिया जाता है। यदि कोई सीलिएक रोग से पीड़ित है, तो उसे ग्लूटेन को खत्म करने के लिए ग्लूटेन मुक्त आहार लेने के लिए सलाह दिया जाता है। इसके अतिरिक्त कभी-कभी व्यक्ति को विशेषज्ञ से परामर्श लेने की आवश्यकता होती है जो लक्षणों का कारण बनने वाली स्थिति का इलाज करता है।

  • दवाएं- रिलुज़ोल, वरेनिक्लिन और एमान्टाडीन ऐसी दवाएं होती हैं, जो व्यक्ति की चाल और कंपकंपी में सुधार के लिए संतोषजनक परिणाम प्रदान करती हैं।
  • फिजिकल थेरेपी-फिजिकल थेरेपी चाल या गति नियंत्रण पर काम करती है। इसलिए अटैक्सिया से पीड़ित लोगों के जीवन की गुणवत्ता में सुधार करने में बेहद लाभकारी होता है।

कब जाएं डॉक्टर के पास?

यदि बिना किसी स्पष्ट कारण के गतिभंग के लक्षणों का अनुभव करते हैं, तो अपने डॉक्टर से तुरंत सलाह लें। वह इस बीमारी के स्पष्ट कारण का पता लगाने में मदद करते हैं। साथ ही उस आधार पर उपचार शुरू करते हैं। निम्नलिखित कुछ लक्षणों को नजरअंदाज़ न करके तुरंत डॉक्टर से परामर्श लें-

  • समन्वय या संतुलन में कमी महसूस करना।
  • चलने में अधिक कठिनाई महसूस करना।
  • अस्पष्ट बात करना या निगलने में परेशानी होना।
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Gangrene Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Posted 26 September, 2022

Gangrene Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Gangrene is a serious condition that occurs when a lack of blood flow or a severe bacterial infection causes the death of body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, including muscles and internal organs, but it usually begins in the extremities, including the toes, fingers, and limbs.

Gangrene is a serious condition that can lead to limb amputation and even death. Therefore, urgent medical attention is required to stop the spread of death of body tissue as rapidly as possible.

Types of Gangrene

  • Dry gangreneDry gangrene is characterized by dry, wrinkled skin and may be recognised as brown to purplish-blue to black in color. It has a slower onset and is most often associated with arterial disease such as atherosclerosis or diabetes.
  • Wet gangreneWet gangrene almost always involves a bacterial infection of the affected tissue. It can develop from a severe burn or trauma where a body part is crushed or compressed. This can quickly cut off the blood supply to the affected area, leading to tissue death and an increased risk of infection.Wet gangrene infection can spread quickly throughout the body and can be fatal, making it a very serious and life-threatening condition if not treated promptly. This is common in diabetics who unknowingly injure their toes or feet.
  • Gas gangreneGas gangrene is rare but very dangerous and occurs when an infection develops deep in the body, such as in muscles or organs, usually as a result of trauma.It is caused by infection with the bacterium clostridium perfringens, which produces a toxin that releases gas. It develops with an injury or surgical wound that bleeds. Gas gangrene can also be life-threatening.
  • Internal gangreneInternal gangrene affects one or more organs, such as the intestines, gallbladder or appendix. This type occurs when blood flow to internal organs is blocked.For example, when the intestines protrude into the abdomen through areas of weakened and twisted muscles.
  • Fournier’s gangreneThis type of gangrene usually occurs due to an infection in the genitals or urinary tract. It is more common in men but can also affect women.

Symptoms of Gangrene

If the skin is affected or the gangrene is close to the skin, symptoms may include

  • Changes in skin color or skin discoloration.
  • Skin that feels cold or cold skin.
  • Fever.
  • Swelling and pain at the site of infection.
  • Foul smelling pus leaking from blisters.
  • Glossy skin.
  • A pop-up sound that comes from the affected area when pressed.

If a bacterial infection originating in gangrenes tissue spreads throughout the body, in some cases, it can cause septic shock. Symptoms of septic shock includes-

  • Low blood pressure.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Confusion.
  • Rapid heart rate.
  • Dizziness.
  • Fever.

Causes of Gangrene

Gangrene may occur due to-

  • Lack of blood supply.
  • Trauma.
  • Infection.

Risk factors of Gangrene

Risk factors may include

  • Diabetes.
  • Blood vessel disease.
  • Severe injury.
  • Obesity.
  • Surgery.
  • Having HIV.
  • Smoking.

Diagnosis of Gangrene

To make a diagnosis, the doctor will perform the following tests-

  • Blood tests to detect certain bacteria or other germs. Abnormally high white blood cells count usually indicates an infection.
  • Imaging tests include computed tomography (CT) scan, X-ray or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to look at body structures, such as internal organs, blood vessels, or bones, and to check how much the gangrene has spread.
  • Fluid or tissue culture to examine for the bacterium clostridium perfringens.
  • In some cases, surgery may be performed to check the extent of spread.

Treatment for Gangrene

Treatment options may depend on the severity of the gangrene. Tissue damaged by gangrene usually cannot be saved, but steps can be taken to slow the progression of your condition. These include-

  • Antibiotics are given intravenously or taken orally.
  • Surgery to remove dead tissue, which stops gangrene from spreading and allows healthy tissue to heal.
  • Skin grafts can be used to repair skin damage caused by gangrene. This can happen when the damaged skin is supplied with sufficient blood again.
  • In severe cases, amputation of the affected body part may be necessary.
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used. In this type of treatment, you are placed in a specially constructed chamber filled with oxygen at a higher pressure than the outside air. The theory is that blood is rich in oxygen, which slows the growth of bacteria and helps infected wounds to heal faster.

When to see a doctor?

To stop the spread of tissue death as quickly as possible, gangrene requires urgent medical attention.

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What is Bacterial Vaginosis? Know its Causes and Symptoms

Posted 23 September, 2022

What is Bacterial Vaginosis? Know its Causes and Symptoms

Bacterial vaginosis is a type of vaginal infection caused by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. This condition is also known as Gardnerella vaginitis and is caused by Gardnerella bacteria. This bacteria is responsible for causing vaginal infections. However, many species of bacteria live naturally in the vagina and their overgrowth or imbalance can lead to an infection called bacterial vaginosis (BV), which results in vaginal discharge. This infection is mostly found in pregnant women. Often, this infection is caused by having sexual intercourse with a new partner.

Bacterial vaginosis is not considered a sexually transmitted infection because it occurs even in women or girls who have never had sexual intercourse. Sexually transmitted infections are those infections that are transmitted through sexual activity.

Causes of Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance of the bacterial flora naturally found in the vagina. This is a common bacteria found in a woman's vagina. Bacterial vaginosis can also be caused by other reasons, such as

  • Using water or a medicated solution to clean the vagina
  • Taking a bath with antiseptic fluids
  • Having sexual intercourse with someone new
  • Having intercourse with multiple partners
  • Using a perfumed bubble bath, vaginal deodorant, or scented soaps.
  • Smoking
  • Washing the undergarments with harsh detergent

Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis

The symptoms of bacterial vaginosis are as follows-

Most women who are infected with bacterial vaginosis do not show any symptoms. Some women may experience some symptoms, which include vaginal discharge, burning, itching, etc. Vaginal discharge may be thin, gray in color or white and foul-smelling and sometimes a burning sensation during urination and itching around the vagina may also be experienced.

Prevention Methods for Bacterial Vaginosis

The following are the measures to prevent bacterial vaginosis-

  • Always practice safe sexual intercourse using a condom.
  • The use of chemical soaps in the vagina can kill normal or good bacteria, which increases the risk of infection. So avoid using it.
  • Use only lukewarm water to clean the vagina.
  • Bacterial vaginosis can cause many problems in pregnancy, it is therefore essential to keep the private parts clean in order to keep infections away, keeping mother and child healthy.

Treatment methods for bacterial vaginosis

Antibiotics are effective in 90 percent of infections, but bacterial vaginosis recurs after a few weeks. Bacterial vaginosis often goes away without treatment, but if you are experiencing symptoms, you should seek treatment to avoid complications. Men don't need treatment, but they can transfer the infection to women during intercourse. Some doctors suggest that bacterial vaginosis surgery should be performed before surgery for abortion or hysterectomy, whether or not symptoms are present.

Metronidazole is the most commonly used antibiotic for bacterial vaginosis. If a woman is pregnant or lactating, taking metronidazole twice a day for seven days provides relief from bacterial vaginosis. A normal woman should take metronidazole once a day for seven days during this infection. Metronidazole, available as a gel, should be applied regularly to the vaginal area once a day for five days. However, it should be taken only after taking advice from a doctor.

Home remedies for bacterial vaginosis

Here are some home remedies to help overcome the problem of bacterial vaginosis-

  • Apple cider vinegar-Apple cider vinegar is a great home remedy for bacterial vaginosis. Due to its acidic nature, apple cider vinegar helps to increase vaginal acidity. This makes it difficult for harmful bacteria to survive and creates a better environment for good bacteria to thrive. To avoid bacterial vaginosis, add one or two cups of apple cider vinegar to your bath water. Then sit in this water for 20 minutes. After this, dry the vaginal area thoroughly. Do this remedy once a day till the condition improves.
  • Curd-Curd is one of the most common home remedies for bacterial vaginosis. Curd contains beneficial bacteria called Lactobacillus. This helps fight harmful bacteria and maintain a healthy vaginal pH balance. Soak a cotton pad in curd and apply it to the affected area, leaving it for at least half an hour. Then wash this part thoroughly with fresh water. Repeat this remedy thrice a day until its symptoms are gone. Apart from this, eat at least two small cups of curd a day to keep the pH balance of the vagina normal and reduce the growth of bad bacteria.
  • Tea tree oil-Tea tree oil has natural antibacterial as well as antifungal properties that help kill the bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis. Apart from this, it is also helpful in removing foul vaginal odor. To do this, mix two tablespoons of tea tree oil in a small bowl of warm water. Then wash the vagina thoroughly with this mixture. Continue this for three to four weeks.
  • Garlic-Garlic, being a natural antibiotic, helps in treating bacterial vaginosis. Apart from this, the antifungal properties present in it keep the bad bacteria in check. Crush three to four garlic cloves and apply them to the affected area. Leave it for about 20 minutes and then wash that area thoroughly with lukewarm water. Do this remedy for several months. Apart from this, consuming garlic regularly, either raw or cooked, is also beneficial.
  • Fenugreek-Fenugreek is very beneficial for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. It boosts the immune system to improve the pH level in the vagina and accelerate the healing process. Soak two tablespoons of fenugreek in a glass of water overnight. In the morning, drink this water on an empty stomach. Follow this remedy for at least a month. Or mix one teaspoon of fenugreek powder in a cup of curd and take it twice a day until the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis subside.
  • Milk-The presence of bacteria called lactobacilli in milk is an excellent natural remedy for bacterial vaginosis. In addition, milk helps strengthen the immune system. In the event of infection, dip a piece of cotton in cold milk and apply it to the vagina. Remove the cotton after keeping it for one to two hours. Do this remedy once a day for several days to get relief from symptoms. Alternatively, mix a teaspoon of turmeric powder into a glass of warm milk.
  • Coconut oil-Coconut oil has natural antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal properties that help kill bacteria and prevent their recurrence. To improve your problem, apply organic coconut oil to the affected area three times a day or soak cotton in organic coconut oil and place it in the vagina. After a few hours, wash the vagina thoroughly with lukewarm water. Also, to boost your immune system and speed up the healing process, use coconut oil in cooking as much as possible.

When to go to the doctor?

Bacterial vaginosis is usually not serious and often goes away on its own. But in case you experience symptoms going worse, consult your doctor and treatment should start immediately.

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What is menarche? Everything You Need to Know

Posted 18 August, 2022

What is menarche? Everything You Need to Know

Menarche is a medical term used to refer to the first menstrual period of a female adolescent. It is the result of interactions between the hypothalamic hormones, pituitary hormones, and ovarian hormones. It can also be affected by the thyroid, pancreatic, and adrenal hormones. Menarche signals the possibility of fertility and is associated with the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Menarche doesn’t occur until all parts of a girl’s reproductive system have matured and are working together. It is abnormal for menarche to occur before the appearance of any secondary sexual development.

The first menstrual cycle of a young girl tends to be irregular and ovulatory. This means that there is no ovulation during this period. However, some girls can ovulate during their first period. Irregular menstruation is usually experienced by teenagers. It may take six years or more from the start of your first period for your periods to become regular.

It has been estimated that most girls will have ovulatory cycles within 5 years of menarche. Girls experience menarche at different ages, but the usual age is between 9-15 years.

In very rare cases, menarche can occur at an early age, either as a result of premature puberty or as a symptom of an endocrine disorder. If menarche does not occur 3 years after breast development or after 16 years of age, this delay is called primary amenorrhea.

Causes of Early Menarche-

Some social and environmental stress factors associated with early menarche may include-

  • Childhood obesity.
  • Being born at a low birth weight.
  • Lack of exercise in childhood.
  • Exposure to smoking.
  • Experiencing preeclampsia during pregnancy.
  • Absence of breastfeeding.
  • Stress.

What can delay menarche?

Certain diseases and ailments can delay menarche, these include-

  • Diabetes mellitus type 1.
  • Asthma.
  • Untreated celiac disease.
  • Cystic fibrosis.
  • Inflammatory diseases.

Late menarche is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, a decreased frequency of coronary artery disease, and a decreased incidence of teen pregnancy.

Symptoms of Menarche

  • Emotional or moody behavior for no apparent reason.
  • Bloating.
  • Brownish fluid and blood flow start this way which becomes redder and heavier during a period.
  • Abdominal cramps.

Diagnosis for Menarche

  • If your child has early or late menarche, diagnosis is available to determine the cause of the problem.
  • To diagnose early menarche, your doctor will ask some questions and run some tests to check the child’s hormones.
  • For late menarche, evaluation of the ovarian and pituitary hormones can help in making a diagnosis.
  • This can be done by a thorough history and a careful visual examination of the genitalia and a manual examination of the female reproductive organs.

When to see a doctor?

Schedule a medical checkup for your child-

  • Has not started menstruating within three years of breast growth or by the age of 15.
  • Breasts haven't started to grow by the age of 13.
  • Has periods that last more than seven days.
  • Has severe pain during periods.
  • Bleeds between periods.
  • Become sick or have a sudden fever after using a tampon.
  • Having menstrual periods of more than 21 days or less than 45 days.
  • Goes 3 months without a period after the start of menstruation.
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What is Pneumococcal disease? Know its Types, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Posted 11 August, 2022

What is Pneumococcal disease? Know its Types, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Pneumococcal is a type of infection in the body which affects many parts of the body. It is mainly caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as Pneumococcus. It is also caused by infection with pneumococcal microbes, certain drugs, and other diseases. This can lead to many diseases. Pneumonia is also caused by this bacterial infection. It can also be caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. This causes a cough with mucus or pus, fever, chills, and shortness of breath & is a serious disease.

This disease can take a serious form if the symptoms are not recognized and treatment is not started on time. It is more harmful for infants, young people, people over the age of 70 and people with a weakened immune system.

Types of Pneumococcal disease

There are mainly two types of pneumococcal diseases which have further divisions. These are mentioned below

  • Invasive Pneumococcal diseaseThis type of pneumococcal disease is considered a serious infection. In this, infection occurs inside any part of the body or in the blood. It includes many diseases which are as follows
  • Septic ArthritisSeptic arthritis is an infection of the joints. This infection mainly reaches the joints through injury or infection in the blood due to which problems like pain, swelling and redness start arising in the joints which affects different joints of the body. It also causes unbearable pain.
  • MeningitisThis infection occurs in the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord of a person.
  • OsteomyelitisThis is a bone infection which spreads to the blood and its surrounding tissues as well as reaches the bones.
  • BacteremiaThis is caused by bacteria present in the blood.
  • SepticemiaSepticemia is an infection in the bloodstream, also known as blood poisoning. It usually occurs when bacterial infections in the body enter the blood through the lungs or skin.

Non Invasive Pneumococcal disease

  • PneumoniaPneumonia is usually caused by a variety of bacteria. The most common of these is Streptococcus pneumoniae. This usually happens when the body is weak due to minor illness, nutritional deficiency, old age or problems with the body's immunity, etc. In this condition, the bacteria reaches the lungs. Bacterial pneumonia can affect people of all ages.
  • Otitis mediaThis is an ear disease. A type of infection, which affects the middle part of the ear. In this condition, due to infection, the central part becomes swollen, due to which the person may have to face unbearable pain.
  • SinusitisSinusitis is an infection in the sinuses that comes under the category of a serious problem. The problem of sinusitis occurs due to many reasons like- sinus infection, pollution, allergies, cold and bacterial infection etc.

Symptoms of pneumococcal disease

Some of the common symptoms caused by pneumococcus bacteria are as follows

Flu-like symptoms are felt when you have pneumococcal disease. These symptoms can develop slowly or rapidly.

  • Fever with sweating and shivering.
  • Suffering from a cough with mucus.
  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Chest pain.
  • Feeling uneasy.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Weakness.
  • Earache or discharge from the ears.
  • Feeling delusional.
  • Blood coming from the mucus while spitting.
  • Redness or rash on the skin.
  • Rapid heartbeat.

Under what circumstances can pneumococcal disease occur?

  • Children below 2 years of age.
  • Children under the age of 5 with pre-existing disease have an increased risk of developing pneumococcal disease.
  • Excessive smoking poses a higher risk of getting this disease.
  • People suffering from diabetes, cancer, lung cancer, kidney problems or any other chronic disease.
  • People with 65 years of age or older.
  • Long-term use of steroid medicines.
  • People with a weak immune system can also be infected. This often causes pneumonia in people who already have AIDS.

Home remedies for Pneumococcal disease

  • Steam inhalationSteam inhalation reduces infection. This also improves the breathing capacity of the patient. Steam reduces cough and also relieves chest tightness.
  • Turmeric mixed with mustard oilMix turmeric powder in lukewarm mustard oil and massage the chest with this mixture.
  • TurmericTurmeric is also helpful in relieving respiratory disorders. It reduces mucus, therefore, consuming turmeric powder in hot milk daily prevents pneumococcal disease.
  • PeppermintPeppermint reduces irritation and mucus. Therefore, make tea using fresh mint leaves and drink it. Mint tea acts as a medicine for pneumonia.
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Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of Measles

Posted 10 August, 2022

Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of Measles

Infection is common due to the change in weather due to which people easily catch infectious diseases such as cold, cough, or flu. Measles is also one of these infectious diseases that can happen to anyone. But in most cases, this infection is seen more in children than in the elderly and young people. This is an infection which cannot be ignored as a sign of changing weather.

Measles is a viral infection of the respiratory system that is easily transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person by respiratory droplets. Red rashes appear all over the body of the affected person. In the initial stage, this red rash first occurs on the head and then gradually spreads to the entire body.

Stages of Measles

Measles occurs in four stages, from the beginning to the end. Usually this phase lasts for 2-3 weeks, but sometimes it can take up to 4 weeks for recovery in severe cases. These steps are described below

  • Incubation phaseThe onset is the incubation phase. At this stage, the person comes into contact with the measles virus. Typically, this stage is 10 to 14 days before the symptoms of this infection start to appear.
  • Prodromal catarrhalThe second stage of this disease is called prodromal. At this stage of measles, some of its initial symptoms are visible. Generally, symptoms like cold, cough, fever, nervousness, and conjunctivitis occur at this stage.
  • Rash phaseMaculo-papular (flattened and red) rash appears 3-4 days after the prodromal phase. Along with this, the patient also experiences all the symptoms of the second stage. But this stage of measles is more painful and severe than the other two stages. During this, the patient also has a high fever (104 to 105).
  • Recovery phaseThis stage of measles is considered the final stage. At this stage, the patient starts to recover. In this, symptoms like cold, cough, fever, etc., start to get better. Along with this, rashes or boils also start to reduce.

Symptoms of Measles

  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Constant runny nose
  • Dry cough
  • Swelling or redness in the eyes
  • Small white colored blisters inside the mouth
  • In the initial stages, a red rash starts behind the ear
  • Muscle pain
  • Koplik’s spots: small white spots surrounded by redness on the buccal mucosa

Causes of Measles

Measles is usually caused when a virus of the paramyxovirus family, i.e., small parasitic microbes, enters the body. The infected droplets are then spread into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks without covering their mouth. The virus in the air droplets then enters the body through the breath of an uninfected person and infects it. After this, the virus attacks the cells present in the body. They also use cellular components to complete their life cycle. Its virus first infects the respiratory system. However, they spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. In addition, measles can also be spread through contact with objects, such as toys or drinking glasses, that have been infected by a sick person.

Risk factors for Measles

  • Children younger than 5 years of age are more prone to measles.
  • People who have not had the measles vaccination.
  • People with a weakened immune system.
  • Those who often travel from one place to another.
  • People with a deficiency of vitamin A.

Take these precautions in the case of Measles

  • Relax completely.
  • Avoid coming into contact with others.
  • Do not use electronic devices like TVs, games, mobiles etc.
  • Avoid eating spicy or junk food.
  • Children should get two doses of the MMR vaccine, starting with the first dose at 12 to 15 months of age and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age. Teens and adults should also be up to date on their MMR vaccination.

Home Remedies for Measles

  • Neem leavesItching is a common symptom among patients with measles. In such a situation, neem leaves are beneficial to reduce itching due to their antibacterial and antifungal properties, which help in destroying the bacteria. For this, boil neem leaves in water and take a bath with this water.
  • Drink lemonadeDrinking lemon water is also beneficial in the case of measles due to the presence of vitamin C, which helps to increase the immunity of the body. It also helps in providing relief against the symptoms of measles like cold, cough, restlessness etc.
  • Coconut waterCoconut water is great for relieving measles. Medical research suggests that applying coconut water to the body can reduce the rash caused by measles. Apart from this, the consumption of coconut water is beneficial for patients with measles.
  • Herbal teaHerbal tea is also a natural Ayurvedic remedy for measles. According to scientific research done on this, consumption of chamomile tea reduces the discomfort caused by measles. Along with this, the properties present in it help with the symptoms of measles, such as cold, fever, and runny nose. Thus, consumption of chamomile tea or any other herbal tea is beneficial for measles patients.
  • Consume orange juiceConsume orange juice daily to reduce the symptoms of measles. In fact, oranges are rich in vitamins A and C, which strengthen the immune system. Also, according to research done on it, orange juice has an antiviral effect that reduces the symptoms of measles. Therefore, consumption of orange juice is beneficial.

When to go to the doctor?

See a doctor immediately if-

  • Rashes appear on the body, accompanied by persistent fever.
  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • If symptoms of measles appear during pregnancy.
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Spondylosis Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Posted 04 August, 2022

Spondylosis Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Spondylosis is a broad term indicating the degenerative changes of the spine. Cervical spondylosis is one of the most common conditions in today's time. It is a common age-related as well as posture related health condition which is known to affect the discs and joints of the spine. Spondylosis is also known as spine arthritis or spine osteoarthritis. Diseases associated with spondylosis usually result from regular wear and tear of the bones and cartilage of any part of the spine region. It affects more than 85% of people over the age of 60.

Causes of Spondylosis

The protective cartilage and bones present in the neck area are very susceptible to wear and tear in everyday life. This can lead to a condition called cervical spondylosis. Some of the possible causes of spondylosis are

  • Bone spursOvergrowth of the bones in the neck or spine can be caused by the body trying to form some extra bone to make the spine stronger. However, additional bone growth can begin to put pressure on sensitive areas of the spine including the spinal cord, nerves and surrounding muscles, which can cause pain and discomfort while movement.
  • Herniated discsThis occurs due to the development of tears in the spinal discs. These tears allow the leakage of inner material required for cushioning. This material can put pressure on the nerves and spinal cord, causing symptoms of spondylosis, including pain and numbness that radiates to the arms.
  • Dehydrated spinal discsThe bones in the spine contain intervertebral discs between them. The discs are thick and paddy that helps in absorbing shock from twisting, lifting and other strenuous activities. The presence of a gel-like material between the spinal discs can dry out over time. This will cause the spinal vertebrae to rub against each other, which can cause severe pain. This process usually begins at the age of 40 years.
  • InjuryIf you have a neck injury due to an accident or fall, it can accelerate the aging process of the spinal cord leading to spondylosis.

Risk Factors of Spondylosis

There are several risk factors that can make a person more likely to develop spondylosis. These include

  • Someone who is older is more likely to be diagnosed with spondylosis than someone who is younger.
  • People who are working that involve repetitive neck movements are more likely to develop spondylosis.
  • A person with a history of neck injury also has a higher risk of developing spondylosis.
  • People who smoke are at a higher risk of developing spondylosis.

Symptoms of Spondylosis

When symptoms of cervical spondylosis appear, they can range from mild to severe and can also develop gradually or even immediately.

One of the most common symptoms associated with cervical spondylosis is pain around the shoulder blades. Some people may also complain of having pain in the hands and fingers along with numbness. The pain in such cases can be exacerbated by standing, lifting heavy objects, constantly sitting, sneezing, bending the neck and other specific positions.

Some of the other common symptoms associated with cervical spondylosis can include

  • Stiffness in neck muscles.
  • Persistent headache that usually occurs at the back of the head.
  • Numbness or tingling in the arms and shoulders.

Complications of Spondylosis

This condition may lead to

  • Inability to hold stools (fecal incontinence) or urine (urinary incontinence).
  • Loss of muscle function or sensation.
  • Permanent disability.
  • Poor balance.

Diagnosis of Spondylosis

When diagnosing spondylosis, it is important for the doctor to rule out the possibility of fibromyalgia. The diagnostic process to check for spondylosis includes special tests to determine the range of motion of the surrounding muscles, nerves, and bones.

Some of the typical tests used to diagnose cervical spondylosis include imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI scans, CT scans, EMG (electromyogram) and others.

Treatment for Spondylosis

Spondylosis treatment focuses on minimizing pain and reducing the risk of causing permanent damage. Here are some methods

  • PhysiotherapyDepending on your symptoms, your doctor may refer your case to a physiotherapist. By providing proper exercise and movement to the neck and shoulder muscles, you can relieve the pain of spondylosis.
  • MedicationsYour doctor may suggest several medications, including muscle relaxants, anti-epileptic drugs, narcotics, steroid injections, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
  • SurgeryIf the condition becomes severe, surgery of the affected area remains the only way to relieve pain.

Home Remedies for Spondylosiss

  • Regular exerciseOne of the main causes of spondylosis is lack of regular exercise. Therefore, you can reduce pain and stiffness around your neck and shoulders by incorporating regular exercise into your lifestyle like walking and swimming.
  • GarlicIts anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties help treat pain, swelling, and inflammation in the surrounding areas of the neck.
  • Hot and cold compressesApply hot and cold compresses to the affected area. Warm compresses increase blood circulation and relaxes inflamed muscles. Cold compresses reduce swelling and inflammation.
  • TurmericTurmeric is another popular remedy for cervical spondylosis. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties, it increases blood flow which reduces muscle stiffness and soreness. For this- Mix 1 teaspoon of turmeric powder in a glass of milk, add a little honey. Drink 2 times a day.
  • Sesame seedsA popular Ayurvedic remedy for cervical spondylosis is sesame seeds. These are high in calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese, zinc, phosphorus, and vitamins K and D, which are good for bones and overall health. Sesame oil is also effective in relieving neck pain.
  • GingerGinger is widely used to treat cervical spondylosis as this herb is rich in anti-inflammatory properties and improves blood circulation.
  • NeemNeem has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties that can reduce pain, inflammation and swelling in the neck.
  • Apple cider vinegarIt is rich in anti-inflammatory properties which is a good remedy for spondylosis. It can effectively relieve pain and inflammation in the neck or affected region of the spine.

When to visit a doctor?

Call your doctor if

  • Your condition is getting worse in terms of pain, swelling or loss of sensation over that particular region.
  • If stiffness over the affected region is too much.
  • You develop new symptoms (for example, loss of movement).
  • You develop symptoms like fainting or nausea after movement of the affected region.
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Hypersomnia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Posted 22 July, 2022

Hypersomnia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Hypersomnia is a neurological condition that causes excessive sleepiness during the day or excessive time spent sleeping. People with hypersomnia have trouble staying awake during the day, even after long stretches of sleep during the night. They have difficulty functioning during the day as their attention, concentration and energy levels are impaired and affected.

The need to sleep can occur at any time including at work or while driving, making the condition potentially dangerous. Lack of attention and concentration can be there in people whose jobs request high levels of attention and time. For eg. In health care, it can result in injuries to patients and to self.

Types of Hypersomnia

Hypersomnia can be of two types- primary or secondary. Primary hypersomnia is less common than secondary hypersomnia.

  • Primary hypersomniaPrimary hypersomnia occurs in the absence of other medical disorders. The only symptom is excessive fatigue.
  • Secondary hypersomniaThis is due to other medical disorders such as sleep apnea, Parkinson's disease, kidney failure and chronic fatigue syndrome. This condition causes lack of sleep at night, leaving you feeling tired during the day.

Causes of Hypersomnia

The exact cause of hypersomnia is largely unknown. However, there are several possible causes, including

 

  • Sleep disorders- In most cases, sleep disorders cause excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). When a person does not get enough sleep at night, it causes fatigue and sleepiness during the day. The two main sleep disorders that cause hypersomnia are narcolepsy and sleep apnea. Narcolepsy is a central nervous system disorder that causes daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hallucinations, muscle weakness and difficulty sleeping at night, while sleep apnea is a breathing disorder in which the airways are blocked by tissues of the throat and mouth (soft palate). This causes snoring and sleep disturbance.
  • Sleep deprivationThis is often the most common cause of hypersomnia and can be cured with adequate sleep and short naps during the day. Sleep deprivation is most often caused by stress, little or no exercise, vitamin D deficiency or poor diet.
  • Neurological diseasesNeurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis or even a head injury can exhibit symptoms similar to hypersomnia. When excessive daytime sleepiness develops after a head injury, it is called post-traumatic hypersomnia. It is not hypersomnolence, but has some of the same symptoms. Excessive sleepiness is also one of the early signs of a brain tumor, even when other symptoms are absent. results. Then rinse off.
  • ObesityBeing overweight can lead to a number of health problems, including EDS. If a person is obese, he or she is more likely to suffer from sleep apnea because fatty tissue in the throat and soft palate obstruct the airways in the supine position. Difficulty breathing causes unhealthy sleep, multiple episodes of breathing upon awakening and snoring. This leads to sleep deprivation and hypersomnia.
  • Substance AbuseAddiction problems such as substance abuse are often at the root of a number of sleep disorders. Withdrawal can cause insomnia, sleep apnea, and other disorders. Prolonged use of prescribed drugs can also cause sleep disturbances, which interfere with normal body functions. All of these lead to sleep disturbances at night and excessive sleepiness during the day. Smoking, caffeine, and other lifestyle problems also cause hypersomnia.
  • GeneticsIf anyone in your family has or ever had a sleep disorder or hypersomnia, they may have a higher risk of EDS.

Symptoms of Hypersomnia

Hypersomnia is primarily defined by excessive sleepiness or sleeping more than 10 hours at night. The symptoms are

 

  • Difficulty while walking.
  • Confusion upon waking.
  • Desire to take a nap.
  • Anxiety.
  • Irritation and restlessness.
  • Lack of energy.
  • Memory and speech problems.
  • Slow thinking.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Hallucination.

Diagnosis of Hypersomnia

To make a diagnosis, the doctor will review your symptoms and medical history. He or she might order several tests to diagnose your condition. They include

  • Sleep diaryDoctor may ask you to keep a sleep diary where you can record sleep patterns to help track sleep.
  • Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS)This is intended to measure daytime sleepiness by using a very short questionnaire. Doctors may ask you to rate your sleepiness with this tool to determine the severity.
  • Multiple sleep latency testIn this test, you take a monitored nap during the day to measure sleepiness and the type of sleep you experience. A machine called a polysomnogram monitors the brain activity, heart rate, eye and leg movements and breathing functions.

Treatment for Hypersomnia

There are several treatments that may improve quality of life, depending on the cause of hypersomnia. These include

  • MedicationsPrescribed medications like modafinil, methylphenidate and amphetamine are effective in helping you to stay awake during the day.

Lifestyle changes

The doctor may recommend

  • Getting on a regular sleeping schedule.
  • Avoiding activities, such as working late at night.
  • Taking a high nutrition diet to maintain optimum energy levels.
  • Avoiding alcohol and drugs that can affect sleep.

When to see a doctor?

You should see a doctor for hypersomnia if:

  • You fall asleep regularly during the daytime.
  • Excessive sleepiness interferes with your daily life.
  • You snore very loudly or wake up gasping for air at night.
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Hypermagnesemia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Posted 22 July, 2022

Hypermagnesemia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Magnesium is an important component that is used by the body that is important for heart health and functioning of the nervous system. Hypermagnesemia is a rare electrolyte disorder in which there is a high level of magnesium in the bloodstream. The body uses magnesium as an electrolyte, which means that when it dissolves in the blood, it generates and transports an electrical charge throughout the body.

Magnesium is stored inside cells or bones which helps to maintain normal nerve and muscle functions. It also contributes to the structural development of bone, helps regulate blood glucose levels, keeps the heartbeat steady and is required for the synthesis of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid).

The body maintains a normal level of 1.4 to 2.6 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of magnesium at all times in healthy people. A magnesium level greater than 2.6 mg/dL is considered high. It is severe if the level is greater than 7 mg/dL.

Causes of Hypermagnesemia

Usually, hypermagnesemia is caused by problems in the organs that regulate and control magnesium in the body, mostly intestine and kidney. When these organs do not work, they are unable to get rid of excess magnesium in the body, resulting in a buildup of the mineral in the blood. Other conditions which causes Hypermagnesemia include.

  • Kidney failure.
  • Hemolysis.
  • Hypothyroidism.
  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • Lithium intoxication.
  • Addison’s disease.
  • Milk-alkali syndrome.
  • Antacids.
  • Seizures.
  • Prolonged ischemia.
  • Tumor lysis syndrome.
  • Adrenal insufficiency.

Symptoms of Hypermagnesemia

You may not have any signs and symptoms if your levels are slightly above normal. If your blood magnesium levels increases, you may experience these symptoms.

  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Headache.
  • Weakness.
  • Dizziness.
  • Impaired breathing.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Sleepiness.
  • Neurological impairment.

Diagnosis for Hypermagnesemia

To make a diagnosis, the doctor will carry out a blood test and measure the magnesium level in the blood. The severity of the condition is determined by the magnesium level found in the blood.

Treatment for Hypermagnesemia

Treatment for hypermagnesemia focuses on identifying the cause and preventing the patient from taking magnesium from any source. The next step is to start intravenous calcium supplements to reduce some serious symptoms such as breathing problems and other cardiovascular complications such as severe hypotension.

Diuretics and water pills are also very effective in getting rid of excess magnesium in the body through urine. People with end stage kidney disease may need dialysis to remove excess magnesium from the body. It is also necessary for those who do not respond to other forms of treatment.

It is clear that people with kidney problems are at maximum risk of hypermagnesemia. For this reason, such people are very careful with diet and medication. You should avoid anything that contains magnesium, including some over-the-counter laxatives. It is important for doctors to screen for hypermagnesemia in people who have impaired renal function and develop the above symptoms.

How can Hypermagnesemia be Prevented?

Avoiding medicines that contain magnesium can help prevent complications. These include some over-the-counter antacids and laxatives.

When to see a doctor?

You should seek medical care immediately if you experience severe symptoms of hypermagnesemia.

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बर्ड फ्लू क्या है? जानें, इसके लक्षण, कारण और इलाज

Posted 21 July, 2022

बर्ड फ्लू क्या है? जानें, इसके लक्षण, कारण और इलाज

इंसानों की तरह पक्षी भी फ्लू की चपेट में आ जाते हैं। आमतौर पर यह बीमारी एवियन इन्फ्लुएंजा वायरस (H5N1) के कारण होता है। इसी वजह से बर्ड फ्लू को एवियन इन्फ्लुएंजा वायरस (Avian Influenza Virus) के नाम से भी जाना जाता हैं। यह एक वायरल संक्रमण है, जो पक्षियों को संक्रमित करने के साथ-साथ मनुष्यों और अन्य जानवरों को भी संक्रमित करता है। मनुष्यों में फैलने वाले बर्ड फ्लू संक्रमण का सबसे आम प्रकार H5N1 होता है।

H5N1, बर्ड फ्लू का एक उपप्रकार है,जिसका मृत्यु दर उच्च है। आमतौर पर यह संक्रमण मुर्गी, टर्की, गीस, मोर और बत्तख जैसे पक्षियों में तेज़ी से फैलता है। इसके अलावा बर्ड फ्लू इंफेक्शन जंगली पक्षियों को प्रभावित करता है। यह संक्रमण इतना खतरनाक साबित होता है कि इससे मनुष्यों एवं पक्षियों की मौत भी हो सकती है।

बर्ड फ्लू कैसे फैलता है?

जंगली पक्षी अपनी आंतों में संक्रमण ले जाते हैं। हालांकि, आमतौर पर वह संक्रमित नहीं होते हैं। बर्ड फ्लू पक्षियों में स्वाभाविक रूप से होने वाली एक बीमारी है। यह बीमारी संक्रमित पक्षियों से असंक्रमित पक्षियों में प्रसारित होती है। यह वायरस पक्षी के मल, नाक के स्राव, मुंह के लार या आंखों से निकलने वाले पानी के संपर्क में आने से फैलता है । जिससे संवेदनशील पक्षी संक्रमित हो जाते हैं। वहीं, मनुष्य इन संवेदनशील पक्षियों के निकट संपर्क में आने पर संक्रमित हो जाते हैं। मनुष्यों में बर्ड फ्लू के अधिकांश मामले संक्रमित मुर्गे या दूषित सतहों के निकट संपर्क का परिणाम होते हैं।

बर्ड फ्लू के लक्षण

मनुष्य आसानी से बर्ड फ्लू से संक्रमित नहीं होते हैं। ज्यादातर दुर्लभ मामलों में, यह मनुष्यों को प्रभावित करता है। आमतौर इसके लक्षण सामान्य फ्लू की तरह ही दिखाई देते हैं। लेकिन हर समय उल्टी का अहसास होना या सांस लेने में समस्या होना इसका आम लक्षण माना जाता हैं। इसके अतिरिक्त कई अन्य लक्षण भी देखने को मिलते हैं, जो निम्नलिखित हैं:

  • लगातार खांसी आना।
  • छाती में तेज़ दर्द होना।
  • सर्दी लगना।
  • ठंडा पसीना।
  • सिरदर्द।
  • भूख में कमी।
  • गले में खराश।
  • सोते समय कठिनाई का सामना करना।
  • 100 डिग्री फ़ारेनहाइट से अधिक बुखार।
  • मसूड़ों से रक्त आना।
  • दस्त।
  • मांसपेशियों और जोड़ों में अधिक दर्द होना।
  • अधिक थकान महसूस करना।
  • आवाज बैठना।
  • बलगम में रक्त आना।
  • आंख में कंजंक्टिवाइटिस (बहुत दुर्लभ लक्षण) आदि।
  • फेफड़ों का संक्रमण होना।

बर्ड फ्लू के ज्यादातर लक्षण सामान्य सर्दी-जुकाम के समान ही होते हैं, स्वास्थ्य में तेजी से गिरावट भी बर्ड फ्लू का संकेत हो सकती है। ।इसलिए, आपको स्वयं की चिकित्सा खुद करने से पहले चिकित्सक से परामर्श लें। साथ ही उनके परामर्शनुसार समय पर इसकी जांच करवाएं। जिससे पता लगाया जा सके कि बर्ड फ्लू है या नहीं।

बर्ड फ्लू के कारण

बर्ड फ्लू प्राकृतिक रूप से जंगली जलपक्षी (जंगली बत्तख) नामक पक्षी में होता है और मुर्गी, टर्की, बत्तख और गीस़ जैसे पक्षियों में फैल जाता है। यह रोग संक्रमित पक्षी की बूंदों या स्राव के संपर्क में आने से फैलता है।

बाहरी बाजार, जहां अंडे और पक्षी भीड़-भाड़ वाली और गंदगी भरी परिस्थितियों में बेचे जाते हैं। वह संक्रमण का केंद्र माना गया हैं और व्यापक रूप से यह बीमारी फैलाने का कारण बनते हैं। इसके अलावा संक्रमित कुक्कुट( मुर्गे ) का कच्चा मांस या संक्रमित पक्षियों के अंडे के सेवन से भी बर्ड फ्लू हो जाता है।

बर्ड फ्लू के जोखिम कारक

  • दूषित जगहों पर जाना या उनका सीधा संपर्क एक प्रमुख जोखिम कारक है।
  • पोल्ट्री फॉर्म पर जाने या उसमें काम करने वाले व्यक्ति को इस फ्लू से ग्रसित होने की आशंका अधिक होती है।
  • संक्रमित पक्षियों के संपर्क में आने पर।
  • बीमार पक्षियों का इलाज या देखभाल करने पर।
  • कच्चे या अधपके मुर्गे के मांस या अंडे का सेवन करने पर।
  • संक्रमित पक्षियों के बिना धुले अंडे को छूने पर।
  • बीमार पक्षियों के संक्रमण से संक्रमित पानी को छूने या उससे स्नान करने पर।
  • ऐसे वातावरण में सांस लेने सेजहां संक्रमित पक्षी बेचे जाते हो।

बर्ड फ्लू की रोकथाम और उपचार

बर्ड फ्लू (एवियन इन्फ्लुएंजा) की रोकथाम के लिए सबसे महत्वपूर्ण फ्लू टीकाकरण है। इसके अलावा कुछ खान-पान में बदलाव एवं सावधानी बरतकर इससे बचा जा सकता हैं। आइए चर्चा करते हैं इन सावधानियों के बारे में

  • अपने हाथों को नियमित रूप से गर्म पानी या साबुन से धोएं।
  • संक्रमित या मरे हुए पक्षियों से बिल्कुल दूर रहें।
  • बर्ड फ्लू के संक्रमण के दौरान मांसाहारी भोजन का सेवन न करें।
  • मांस को खरीदते समय साफ-सफाई का ध्यान रखें।
  • खांसते वक्त मुंह को रुमाल या टिश्यू से ढकें।
  • संक्रमण से बचने के लिए सर्दी-जुकाम से ग्रसित होने पर लोगों से दूर रहें।
  • बर्ड फ्लू के मरीज पूरी तरह से आराम करें।
  • पर्याप्त मात्रा में तरल पदार्थों का सेवन करें।
  • उचित और पोषण युक्त भोजन करें।

बर्ड फ्लू के घरेलू उपचार

  • हल्दीहल्दी अपने एंटी इंफ्लेमेंटरी गुणों के लिए जानी जाती है। जो इम्यूनोप्रोटेक्टिव एजेंटों को उत्तेजित करने का भी काम करती है। जिससे बर्ड फ्लू के जोखिम को कम करने में मदद मिलती है। इसके लिए एक गिलास गर्म पानी में एक चुटकी हल्दी का चूर्ण मिलाकर इसका सेवन करें ।
  • अदरकअदरक में मौजूद जिंजरोल और जिंजरोन नामक यौगिक संक्रमण से छुटकारा दिलाने का काम करते हैं। साथ ही रोग-प्रतिरोधक शक्ति बढ़ाने में मदद करते हैं। जिससे रोगजनकों से लड़ने में मदद मिलती है। इसके लिए प्रतिदिन सुबह अदरक की चाय पिएं। इसके अलावा अदरक युक्त चाय में शहद या नींबू मिलाकर सेवन करना फायदेमंद होता है।
  • एस्ट्रैगलसएस्ट्रैगलस एक रोग-प्रतिरोधक क्षमता बढ़ाने वाली जड़ी बूटी के रूप में जाना जाता है। यह इंटरफेरॉन उत्पादन को बढ़ाकर अस्थि मज्जा का समर्थन करता है। इस प्रकार यह जड़ी-बूटी रोगजनकों से लड़ने में मदद करती है। जिससे बर्ड फ्लू के लक्षणों को कम किया जा सकता है। इसके लिए चाय या सूप में एस्ट्रैगैलस की जड़ का पाउडर मिलाकर सेवन करें।
  • लहसुनलहसुन अपने एंटीवायरल और एंटीबायोटिक गुणों के लिए जाना जाता है। यह सभी गुण बर्ड फ्लू के लक्षणों को प्रभावी ढंग से ठीक करते हैं। इसके अलावा लहसुन प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली को भी बढ़ाता है। इसके लिए एक गिलास गुनगुने पानी के साथ लहसुन की एक कली का सेवन रोज़ सुबह खली पेट करें।
  • ग्रीन टीग्रीन टी में पाए जाने वाले कैटेचिन, फेनोलिक यौगिक, अपने शक्तिशाली एंटी-इन्फ्लुएंजा गुणों के लिए जाने जाते हैं। यह सभी यौगिक बर्ड फ्लू के लक्षणों को कम करने में मदद करते हैं।
  • भाप लें दरअसल बर्ड फ्लू के सबसे आम लक्षणों में गले में अधिक मात्रा में बलगम फसा रहना एवं सांस की समस्या को माना जाता है। भाप लेने से श्वास नली की सफाई होती है एवं फसा हुआ बलग़म भी ढीला होकर हट जाता है, जिससे साँस लेने में राहत मिलती है और श्वास समस्याओं में कुछ आराम लगता है। इसके लिए पानी को उबालें। फिर अपने सिर को तौलिए से ढक लें और उबलते हुए पानी की भांप को श्वास के साथ अंदर खीचें और बाहर छोड़ें ।पानी में चाहे तो तुलसी के पत्ते और लौंग भी डाल सकते हैं। श्वास लेने में ज़्यादा अवरोध होने पर, इस प्रक्रिया को दिन में ३-४ बार भी कर सकते हैं

डॉक्टर के पास कब जाएं?

यदि कोई व्यक्ति पोल्ट्री में कार्यरत हो या बर्ड फ्लू महामारी वाले किसी अन्य जगहों पर गया हो। इस दौरान 10 दिनों के अंदर फ्लू के लक्षण देखने को मिलते हैं, तो इस स्थिति में अपने चिकित्सक से तुरंत परामर्श लें।

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Hyperhidrosis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Posted 19 July, 2022

Hyperhidrosis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Hyperhidrosis is a non-threatening medical condition characterized by excessive sweating that is not necessarily related to heat or exercise. The excessive sweating usually occurs in the most active regions of perspiration including the hands, feet, armpits, groin and the facial area. This is due to high concentration of sweat glands in these areas.

People of all genders and ages can be affected by this condition. About 3% of the world’s population is affected with hyperhidrosis.

Classification of Hyperhidrosis

  • Primary hyperhidrosis When excessive sweating is localized (affecting only one body part), it is referred to as primary or focal hyperhidrosis.

Primary or focal hyperhidrosis may be further divided by the area affected. For example, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating of the hands or feet. Axillary hyperhidrosis is the excessive sweating of the armpits, while gustatory hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating of the face or chest a few moments after consuming certain foods.

  • Secondary hyperhidrosis When excessive sweating involves the whole body, it is referred to as secondary or generalised hyperhidrosis.

Hyperhidrosis may also be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed later in life). However, most cases of hyperhidrosis tend to start during adolescence. It can affect and deteriorate the quality of life.

Causes of Hyperhidrosis

Sweating helps the body to stay cool. It is perfectly natural. The cause of primary hyperhidrosis is unknown, but it may be caused by overactivity of the nerves responsible for signalling the sweat glands.

When the body temperature rises, the nervous system automatically triggers the sweat glands. With anxiety or nervousness, the problem even gets worse for many sufferers.

Other factors that can play a role include certain food and drinks, caffeine and nicotine. Secondary hyperhidrosis usually results from an underlying medical condition. Conditions that can cause secondary hyperhidrosis includes

  • Cancer.
  • Low blood sugar.
  • Diabetes.
  • Gout.
  • Obesity.
  • Heart attack.
  • Nervous system disorders.
  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • Acromegaly.
  • Menopause.
  • Stroke.
  • Spinal cord injury.

Some infections such as

  • HIV.
  • Malaria.
  • Tuberculosis.

Some medications like

  • NSAIDs.
  • Opioids.
  • Insulin.
  • Tricyclic antidepressants.

Symptoms of Hyperhidrosis

Common signs and symptoms of hyperhidrosis include

  • Frequent sweating is usually unrelated to heat or exercise.
  • Clammy palms of the hand.
  • Clammy soles of the feet.
  • Noticeable sweating that soaks through clothing.

Diagnosis for Hyperhidrosis

To make a diagnosis, the doctor will review your medical history and ask details about your sweating, location (localized or generalized), and time pattern (if it happens at night), if it starts when you are reminded of a traumatic event and any other symptom.

The doctor may try to rule out any underlying condition by ordering blood, urine or other lab tests.

Imaging tests to look for tumors such as Ultrasound, Computed Tomography (CT scan), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scan).

Sweat tests may be carried out, including iodine-starch test, skin conductance or a thermoregulatory sweat test to pinpoint areas of sweating and estimate the severity of your condition.

Treatment for Hyperhidrosis

If the condition is triggered by an underlying condition, the condition is treated first. If no cause is found, the goal of treatment is to control excessive sweating. Treatment options may include

  • Prescription antiperspirant that contains 10% to 20% aluminium chloride.
  • Anticholinergics.
  • Botulinum toxin injection.
  • Iontophoresis, in this procedure, the hands or feet are placed in water and then a gentle electric current is passed through it.
  • Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy, during this procedure, the surgeon cuts, burns or clamps the nerves that carry messages to the sweat glands. It is usually recommended in severe cases which have not responded to other treatments.

Certain alteration in daily activity and lifestyle may help with symptoms

  • Armpit shields to protect garments from sweat.
  • Regular bathing.
  • Shoes and socks made of natural materials.
  • Change socks often.

Home Remedies for Hyperhidrosis

  • Apple cider vinegarUse apple cider vinegar as a natural astringent by applying it to your skin with a cotton swab before going to bed and washing it off in the morning. This can help in reducing the hyperhidrosis symptoms.
  • Baking soda and cornstarch pasteBaking soda and cornstarch helps absorb sweat, lower pH levels and blocks odour. Make your own natural deodorant by mixing baking soda with cornstarch and applying it to clean, dry underarms. For best results, use this natural hyperhidrosis remedy several times a day.
  • Lemon juiceLemon juice is a natural home remedy for hyperhidrosis. For best results, apply fresh lemon to your underarms at night, then take a shower in the morning to remove any residual scent.
  • Drink plenty of waterYour body naturally produces more sweat when you are dehydrated or when your body temperature rises. Therefore, drinking lots of water is beneficial to prevent sweating naturally.

When to see a doctor?

Seek immediate medical help if heavy sweating is accompanied by chest pain, nausea or lightheadedness.

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Hydrocephalus: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Posted 14 July, 2022

Hydrocephalus: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Hydrocephalus is a condition characterized by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, which results in increased pressure in the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It plays an important role in the brain functions by acting as a protective cushion to keep the brain from injury, nourishing the brain and removing waste products of the brain metabolism.

CSF is produced by specialized cells in the choroid plexuses of the brain ventricles. It circulates through the ventricular system in the brain and is absorbed in the bloodstream. When the circulatory path of the CSF is blocked, fluid begins to build up, causing hydrocephalus.

Hydrocephalus can occur at any age, but it occurs mostly among infants and adults aged 60 and above.

Types and Causes of Hydrocephalus

There are different types of hydrocephalus, these include-

Congenital hydrocephalus- Usually present at birth and may be caused by influences or events that occur during fetal development or genetic abnormalities. This may include an infection in the mother during pregnancy. For eg. Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, mumps and spina bifida.

Acquired hydrocephalus- It develops after birth, usually a stroke, meningitis, brain tumor or as result of serious head injury.

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)- A particular form of chronic hydrocephalus that can strike people at any age, but more common in people aged 50 and older. It may result from head trauma, infection, tumor and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Communicating hydrocephalus- It occurs when the flowof blood is blocked after leaving the ventricles. The various neurologic conditions can result in communicating hydrocephalus, including meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Non-communicating hydrocephalus- It occurs when the CSF is blocked along one or more of the thin connections between the ventricles. The blockage may be from a tumor. It is also called obstructive hydrocephalus.

Symptoms of Hydrocephalus

In infants, symptoms may include-

  • An unusually large head.
  • A rapid increase in head size.
  • Poor feeding.
  • Sleepiness.
  • Spina bifida.
  • Vomiting.
  • Irritability.
  • Poor growth.
  • Poor responsiveness to touch.
  • Eyes that appear to gaze downward.

Among toddlers and older children, symptoms may include-

  • Headache.
  • Poor appetite.
  • Poor coordination.
  • Unstable balance.
  • Blurred or double vision.
  • Urinary incontinence.
  • Excessive sleepiness.
  • A decline in school performance.
  • Change in personality.
  • Cross eye.
  • Poor temper control.
  • Delays with previously acquired skills.
  • Muscle spasm.

In older adults, symptoms may include-

  • Memory loss.
  • Loss of thinking.
  • Difficulty walking.

Diagnosis for Hydrocephalus

For congenital hydrocephalus, a routine prenatal ultrasound scan may detect the condition during pregnancy in the developing fetus. If the ultrasound scan shows anything abnormal, additional tests will be performed.

For acquired hydrocephalus, diagnostic techniques usually include examining medical history, carrying out a physical and neurological exam and ordering brain imaging tests such as CT scan or MRI scan.

Treatment for Hydrocephalus

Both congenital and acquired hydrocephalus require prompt treatment to reduce pressure on the brain and the risk of brainstem damage. The brainstem regulates functions such as breathing and heartbeat.

The most common treatment option is the surgical implantation of a shunt. A shunt is a drainage system, which is made up of a long, flexible tube that diverts the flow of fluid into another region of the body, most often the abdominal cavity where it can be absorbed.

People with the condition will usually need to have a shunt system in place for the duration of their life. If the shunt is placed in a child, additional surgeries may be required to insert a longer tubing as they grow.

Another treatment option is the endoscopic third ventriculostomy. In this procedure, the surgeon makes a hole in the bottom of one of the ventricles or between the ventricles, creating a pathway for the fluid to flow out of the brain.

When to consult a doctor?

You should make an appointment with your doctor if you experience fever or recurrence of the original symptoms of hydrocephalus.

Some children with the condition may need an additional care team treatment depending on the severity. The care team may include-

  • Occupational therapist.
  • Developmental therapist.
  • A social worker.
  • Mental health provider.
  • A special education teacher.
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12 Ways to Stop a Panic Attack

Posted 12 July, 2022

12 Ways to Stop a Panic Attack

A panic attack is a sudden and intense attack of fear, panic or anxiety. These are overwhelming and have physical as well as emotional symptoms. When you have a panic attack, you may have difficulty breathing, sweat profusely, trembling, and you may feel your heart beating fast. Some people will also experience chest pain and a feeling of detachment from reality or themselves during a panic attack, which may make them think they are having a heart attack.

Here are some ways to help stop a panic attack

  • Focus on breathingWhile suffering from panic attacks, we are often so stuck up in giving into our fear that we fail to recognize that our breathing becomes erratic and much unmeasured. In order to calm down from a panic attack at home, it is important to focus on breathing. Indulge in deep breathing by inhaling deeply and then exhaling deeply. It helps get rid of shortness of breath and helps in overcoming fear too. This ensures that you can easily prevent hyperventilation and get a good treatment at home itself.
  • Accept the conditionFor a person, it is important for them to accept the fact that they are having an anxiety attack and that would pass over in a quick succession of time. Don't avoid the topic completely because it won't bring you anything good.
  • Block out the world, close your eyesOften, panic attacks begin from the condition of past triggers of trauma. To get rid of the same, the best way to do it is by closing your eyes and letting the stimuli around come to a halt. It helps in bringing forth a better understanding of the situation. Closing the eyes during a panic attack helps in slowing down the excessive stimuli and makes it easier for you to reduce panic attacks and keep them in check.
  • Try LavenderLavender is an amazing treatment option for a panic attack. It helps in relieving the signs of anxiety and fear in individuals mainly because of its relaxing properties. People suffering from panic attacks can effectively calm down by inhaling the smell of lavender. For best effect, put 1 drop of lavender oil on your wrist and rub it. Inhale the scent to help calm down your mind.
  • Be mindfulBeing mindful or rather the practice of mindfulness, has been found to have a remarkable effect, helps to get rid of the signs and symptoms of panic attack. Panic attacks can affect the cause of detachment, so being mindful is very important. For best impacts, feel the texture of the ground or even dig the heels deeper into the ground that can definitely help regain that consciousness back, which is beneficial for helping you get rid of a panic attack.
  • Know your triggersTriggers can be anything from a bad memory to an enclosed place nearby. If you are familiar with these triggers then you are sure to cope much better with the panic attack condition.
  • Muscle relaxation techniqueWhile suffering from a panic attack, there are chances that you could have muscle spasms that contractile issues with your body. One of the best ways to stop a panic attack is to consciously relax one muscle at a time. It is always suggested to know the muscle relaxing methods that work efficiently, and rest will beneficially fall into place.
  • Indulge in light exerciseStudies show that indulging in some light exercises are helpful in managing conditions associated with panic attacks. Any form of light exercise, be it jogging, running, or even working out in the gym can go a long way in promoting the release of hormones known as endorphins, which have a tremendous effect in quickly curing panic attacks. Endorphins have the capability of removing a person from a stressful condition, thus helping in getting rid of a panic attack and anxiety that you are suffering from.
  • Think of happy memoriesEvery single one of us has their happy place, a memory that makes us feel safe and secure and confines the place around us. If you have been struggling with awful memories, the best way to handle the same is by reading your mind to think of something happy and good. When you think of your happy place, picture yourself there and be free. The feeling itself should be enough for the panic attack treatment at home.
  • Chant a mantraA mantra is nothing more than a phrase that helps calm your senses and strengthen your inner core. It is often very effective in treating panic attacks as it helps you focus on only one thing and thus prevents all kinds of unnecessary thoughts from flowing through your mind. As you keep chanting, it does become a lot easier for your physical responses to become slow and let the excruciating stress dissipate easily. It relaxes the muscles and brings forth a calming sensation.
  • Use of benzodiazepineBenzodiazepine is one of the most powerful forms of medication that helps heal panic attacks quickly. This drug is a prescription drug which is why it is necessary for you to have a diagnosis for getting the medication for you. In fact, it is very effective in dealing with the overall condition. The medication comes with its side effects which is why it is important to ensure you take it only in the most extreme conditions only.
  • Talk to professionalSeeking professional help can be very effective in dealing with the conditions associated with your panic attacks. If you have been experiencing recurring panic attacks, the best way to combat the same is by ensuring you do talk to a specialist about the condition.Having someone professional to guide you through the process can be quite effective in handling the situation maturely.
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Sinusitis: Causes, Symptoms and Home remedies

Posted 11 July, 2022

Sinusitis: Causes, Symptoms and Home remedies

Having a cold, headache is usually not a big problem but sometimes this problem can also be a sign of some serious underlying disease. Sinusitis or Sinus comes under the category of a serious problem that occurs due to many reasons like-infection, pollution, allergies, cold and bacterial infection etc.

What is Sinusitis or Sinus?

Inside the bones of the face around the nose have small cavity-like structures filled with air which is called sinus. When a person has a cold or allergy, the sinus tissue or the mucous membrane becomes inflamed. This condition is called sinusitis. This inflammation is caused by an infection which starts as a common cold. After that, it develops completely as a bacterial, viral and fungal infection due to which the person has to face problems like headache, pain in the face and nasal congestion.

Types of Sinuses

Sinus disease is classified on the basis of duration of the infection, which are as follows:

  • Acute sinus infectionThis type of sinus is of the shortest duration. Usually, this infection occurs due to viral infection which lasts only for 3 to 4 weeks or less.
  • Subacute sinus infectionThe sinus symptoms can last for three months. The main reason for this type of infection is bacterial infection or seasonal allergies.
  • Chronic sinus infectionThis type of sinus lasts for a long time. Usually, the symptoms of chronic sinus last for about 12 weeks i.e. 3 months. The main reason for this is due to allergies, infection, mucus and inflammation.
  • Recurrent acute sinusitisThis type of sinus is recurrent. This infection can happen about 4 to 5 times in a year. Also, its symptoms last for at least 1 week each time. Due to recurrent it is called recurrent acute sinusitis.

Common Symptoms of Sinus

  • Frequent runny nose
  • Nasal congestion
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Loss of smell and taste
  • Feeling of swelling and pain around the nose, head, eyes and throat.

Other Symptoms of Sinus are

  • Ear pain.
  • Feeling of pain on the surface of the teeth and upper jaw.
  • Having a sore throat.
  • Increase in cough at night.
  • Bad breath.
  • Feeling tired or weak.
  • Getting nausea.
  • Feeling irritable.

Causes of Sinus

  • Having a cold
  • Virus, fungus and bacterial infection
  • Allergy in nose
  • Polluted environment
  • Exposure to chemical fumes and dust
  • Contact with animals
  • Enlargement of the nasal bone into a pointed shape

Precautions to be taken

  • Take a good rest
  • Avoid smoking
  • Drink plenty of water and other fluids
  • Use a lukewarm facial pack
  • Take steam regularly
  • Avoid going to dusty and soiled places.
  • Stay away from anxiety, stress and depression
  • Wash hands thoroughly before eating
  • Wash hands thoroughly after sneezing, coughing or after coming from the toilet
  • Avoid going in infected and polluted environment

Home remedies of Sinus

  • Essential oilThe use of essential oil as aromatherapy can be beneficial in case of sinus. This therapy helps in destroying the inflammation and bacteria that occur in sinus disease. For this, put 2 to 3 drops of essential oil in a diffuser like basil, peppermint, rosemary, eucalyptus, or frankincense. In this way, it will help relieve sinus swelling./li>
  • Apple cider vinegarApple cider vinegar can be considered to be one of the most effective remedies to treat sinus pain due to its acetic acid that has antimicrobial properties that combats bacterial and viral infections. Pour one spoonful of apple cider vinegar in hot water then take steam which helps in relief.
  • Lemon balmLemon balm is considered an effective remedy in the treatment of sinus. It has analgesic properties that work to relieve headache caused by sinus. For this, massage the head, nose and throat with lemon balm oil or boil some leaves of lemon balm in water and using it as a decoction is also beneficial.
  • Tea and herbal teaHoney tea or herbal tea is one of the good home remedies for sinus because it helps in reducing the symptoms of sinus disease. Therefore, this tea proves to be effective in sinus./li>
  • Ginger teaGinger has analgesic and antibacterial properties which removes swelling and pain. Therefore, using ginger tea containing honey or ginger in any form is beneficial for sinus.
  • GarlicGarlic has antibacterial properties which help to relieve the symptoms of sinus. For this, grind 4 to 5 buds of garlic and put it in hot water and make soup. Drink this soup when it is lukewarm. This gives relief in sinus disease.
  • Tea tree oilTea tree oil has antiseptic, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties which removes headache caused by sinus. For this, put 4 to 5 drops of tea tree oil in hot water and take steam./li>
  • CinnamonCinnamon is effective in treating sinus. It destroys the microorganisms causing sinus. For this, mix a small spoon of cinnamon powder in a glass of warm water and consume it. Doing this for a few days gives relief.
  • Fenugreek seedsFenugreek seeds are also effective in treating sinus. For this, boil fenugreek seeds in water and filter that mixture. Drink it like tea two to three times a day. Doing this regularly for a few days gets rid of sinus.

Medical Treatment Methods for Sinus

  • Saline nasal spraySpray this in your nose multiple times a day to clean your nasal passages./li>
  • Nasal corticosteroidsThese nasal sprays are used to treat and prevent inflammation. Fluticasone (Flonase Allergy Relief, Flonase Sensimist Allergy Relief), budesonide (Rhinocort Allergy), mometasone (Nasonex) and beclomethasone (Beconase AQ, Qnasl) are some examples.
  • DecongestantsThese medications are available in over-the-counter (OTC), prescription liquids, tablets and nasal sprays. Use nasal decongestants for a few days.
  • Allergy medicationsAllergy medications can be used to reduce the symptoms of sinusitis caused by allergies./li>
  • Ginger teaGinger has analgesic and antibacterial properties which removes swelling and pain. Therefore, using ginger tea containing honey or ginger in any form is beneficial for sinus.
  • OTC pain relieversAcetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB) or aspirin relieves the pain.

When to see a doctor

Usually, see a doctor if symptoms:

  • Last longer than 10 days without improving.
  • Include severe symptoms that are not cured by over-the-counter medication (OTC).
  • Include swelling and vision changes around the eyes.
  • Worsen after improving
  • Include a fever that lasts more than 3-4 days.
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What is Rotavirus? Know its Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Posted 05 July, 2022

What is Rotavirus? Know its Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Rotavirus is an infected virus that causes vomiting and diarrhea (watery stools) particularly among infants and young children. Adults can also be affected but they tend to get less sick than young children. The risk of rotavirus infection is highest in winter and spring (December to June).

Rotavirus is highly contagious. It is transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the feces (stools) of an infected person. This can happen if you touch a contaminated object, food, water, hands or mouth of an infected person. The virus enters your body when your unclean hands touch your nose or mouth.

Symptoms of Rotavirus

It usually takes about 48 hours after initial exposure to rotavirus before symptoms develop. This period is called the "incubation period" for the virus. These symptoms are

  • Vomiting
  • High fever
  • Dehydration
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Irritability
  • Excessive fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite

Causes of Rotavirus

Anyone can be infected with rotavirus at any age. You can catch the virus through exposure to food or objects that are contaminated with it. It is transmitted by the oral-fecal route, which means that a person carrying the virus can spread it by touching objects or preparing food without washing the hands properly after using the washroom.

This virus attacks the lining of the small intestine through the physiological process of osmosis, fluids and electrolytes flow into the digestive system, causing abdominal cramps, weight loss, low blood pressure, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea.

How to prevent the spread of Rotavirus?

  • If your baby is infected with rotavirus, be careful to wash your hands after changing diapers and before preparing food, serving, or eating.
  • Use liquid soap in warm running water. Dry your hands well after washing.
  • Clean the toilets regularly with a disinfectant. Clean the flush handles, toilet seats, sink faucets, bathroom surfaces, and doorknobs with hot water and detergent. Disposable towels should be used.
  • It is best for infected children and adults to stay away from childcare centers, schools, work and other places so that they do not infect other people.

What vaccines can be taken for Rotavirus?

To prevent rotavirus infection and reduce its complications, parents should make sure their children receive the vaccine, which is available in two forms.

  • Rotarix:This vaccine is given in two doses to infants aged 2 months and 4 months.
  • RotaTeq:The vaccine is given orally in three doses, often at 2, 4, and 6 months.

Children with a history of severe combined immune deficiency or those who are already seriously ill should not take the vaccine.

Treatment and Home Remedies for Rotavirus

If you have rotavirus, you can usually treat your illness at home with a few simple methods

  • Hydration:The most important thing you can do is focus on staying hydrated. It is important to drink water. If you prefer the taste, you might consider an oral rehydration solution or an energy drink that contains electrolytes, effective in treating vomit or diarrhea.
  • Diet:Eat cake or toast as these are usually the most tolerable foods. Avoid food that upsets your stomach, such as oily, fried or spicy foods.
  • Rest:Try to rest during illness so you don't feel tired.
  • Medications:Over-the-counter diarrhea medications can prevent stomach upset and relieve your diarrhea, but remember that they often have little effect.

When to call your doctor?

Most people can manage rotavirus on their own, but medical care is needed in some cases.

Call your doctor or seek emergency medical help if you or your child experience any of the following

  • Fever over 100 degrees
  • Fever that lasts more than three or four days
  • Blood in the stool or dark stools
  • Vomiting blood
  • Lethargy (extreme fatigue)
  • Confusion
  • Very little or no urine
  • Weak or fast heartbeat
  • Dry mouth
  • Cold sensation in hands and feet
  • Hard to breathe
  • Difficulty in walking or standing
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