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Hypermagnesemia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Posted 22 July, 2022

Hypermagnesemia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Magnesium is an important component that is used by the body that is important for heart health and functioning of the nervous system. Hypermagnesemia is a rare electrolyte disorder in which there is a high level of magnesium in the bloodstream. The body uses magnesium as an electrolyte, which means that when it dissolves in the blood, it generates and transports an electrical charge throughout the body.

Magnesium is stored inside cells or bones which helps to maintain normal nerve and muscle functions. It also contributes to the structural development of bone, helps regulate blood glucose levels, keeps the heartbeat steady and is required for the synthesis of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid).

The body maintains a normal level of 1.4 to 2.6 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of magnesium at all times in healthy people. A magnesium level greater than 2.6 mg/dL is considered high. It is severe if the level is greater than 7 mg/dL.

Causes of Hypermagnesemia

Usually, hypermagnesemia is caused by problems in the organs that regulate and control magnesium in the body, mostly intestine and kidney. When these organs do not work, they are unable to get rid of excess magnesium in the body, resulting in a buildup of the mineral in the blood. Other conditions which causes Hypermagnesemia include.

  • Kidney failure.
  • Hemolysis.
  • Hypothyroidism.
  • Hyperthyroidism.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • Lithium intoxication.
  • Addison’s disease.
  • Milk-alkali syndrome.
  • Antacids.
  • Seizures.
  • Prolonged ischemia.
  • Tumor lysis syndrome.
  • Adrenal insufficiency.

Symptoms of Hypermagnesemia

You may not have any signs and symptoms if your levels are slightly above normal. If your blood magnesium levels increases, you may experience these symptoms.

  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Headache.
  • Weakness.
  • Dizziness.
  • Impaired breathing.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Sleepiness.
  • Neurological impairment.

Diagnosis for Hypermagnesemia

To make a diagnosis, the doctor will carry out a blood test and measure the magnesium level in the blood. The severity of the condition is determined by the magnesium level found in the blood.

Treatment for Hypermagnesemia

Treatment for hypermagnesemia focuses on identifying the cause and preventing the patient from taking magnesium from any source. The next step is to start intravenous calcium supplements to reduce some serious symptoms such as breathing problems and other cardiovascular complications such as severe hypotension.

Diuretics and water pills are also very effective in getting rid of excess magnesium in the body through urine. People with end stage kidney disease may need dialysis to remove excess magnesium from the body. It is also necessary for those who do not respond to other forms of treatment.

It is clear that people with kidney problems are at maximum risk of hypermagnesemia. For this reason, such people are very careful with diet and medication. You should avoid anything that contains magnesium, including some over-the-counter laxatives. It is important for doctors to screen for hypermagnesemia in people who have impaired renal function and develop the above symptoms.

How can Hypermagnesemia be Prevented?

Avoiding medicines that contain magnesium can help prevent complications. These include some over-the-counter antacids and laxatives.

When to see a doctor?

You should seek medical care immediately if you experience severe symptoms of hypermagnesemia.

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बर्ड फ्लू क्या है? जानें, इसके लक्षण, कारण और इलाज

Posted 21 July, 2022

बर्ड फ्लू क्या है? जानें, इसके लक्षण, कारण और इलाज

इंसानों की तरह पक्षी भी फ्लू की चपेट में आ जाते हैं। आमतौर पर यह बीमारी एवियन इन्फ्लुएंजा वायरस (H5N1) के कारण होता है। इसी वजह से बर्ड फ्लू को एवियन इन्फ्लुएंजा वायरस (Avian Influenza Virus) के नाम से भी जाना जाता हैं। यह एक वायरल संक्रमण है, जो पक्षियों को संक्रमित करने के साथ-साथ मनुष्यों और अन्य जानवरों को भी संक्रमित करता है। मनुष्यों में फैलने वाले बर्ड फ्लू संक्रमण का सबसे आम प्रकार H5N1 होता है।

H5N1, बर्ड फ्लू का एक उपप्रकार है,जिसका मृत्यु दर उच्च है। आमतौर पर यह संक्रमण मुर्गी, टर्की, गीस, मोर और बत्तख जैसे पक्षियों में तेज़ी से फैलता है। इसके अलावा बर्ड फ्लू इंफेक्शन जंगली पक्षियों को प्रभावित करता है। यह संक्रमण इतना खतरनाक साबित होता है कि इससे मनुष्यों एवं पक्षियों की मौत भी हो सकती है।

बर्ड फ्लू कैसे फैलता है?

जंगली पक्षी अपनी आंतों में संक्रमण ले जाते हैं। हालांकि, आमतौर पर वह संक्रमित नहीं होते हैं। बर्ड फ्लू पक्षियों में स्वाभाविक रूप से होने वाली एक बीमारी है। यह बीमारी संक्रमित पक्षियों से असंक्रमित पक्षियों में प्रसारित होती है। यह वायरस पक्षी के मल, नाक के स्राव, मुंह के लार या आंखों से निकलने वाले पानी के संपर्क में आने से फैलता है । जिससे संवेदनशील पक्षी संक्रमित हो जाते हैं। वहीं, मनुष्य इन संवेदनशील पक्षियों के निकट संपर्क में आने पर संक्रमित हो जाते हैं। मनुष्यों में बर्ड फ्लू के अधिकांश मामले संक्रमित मुर्गे या दूषित सतहों के निकट संपर्क का परिणाम होते हैं।

बर्ड फ्लू के लक्षण

मनुष्य आसानी से बर्ड फ्लू से संक्रमित नहीं होते हैं। ज्यादातर दुर्लभ मामलों में, यह मनुष्यों को प्रभावित करता है। आमतौर इसके लक्षण सामान्य फ्लू की तरह ही दिखाई देते हैं। लेकिन हर समय उल्टी का अहसास होना या सांस लेने में समस्या होना इसका आम लक्षण माना जाता हैं। इसके अतिरिक्त कई अन्य लक्षण भी देखने को मिलते हैं, जो निम्नलिखित हैं:

  • लगातार खांसी आना।
  • छाती में तेज़ दर्द होना।
  • सर्दी लगना।
  • ठंडा पसीना।
  • सिरदर्द।
  • भूख में कमी।
  • गले में खराश।
  • सोते समय कठिनाई का सामना करना।
  • 100 डिग्री फ़ारेनहाइट से अधिक बुखार।
  • मसूड़ों से रक्त आना।
  • दस्त।
  • मांसपेशियों और जोड़ों में अधिक दर्द होना।
  • अधिक थकान महसूस करना।
  • आवाज बैठना।
  • बलगम में रक्त आना।
  • आंख में कंजंक्टिवाइटिस (बहुत दुर्लभ लक्षण) आदि।
  • फेफड़ों का संक्रमण होना।

बर्ड फ्लू के ज्यादातर लक्षण सामान्य सर्दी-जुकाम के समान ही होते हैं, स्वास्थ्य में तेजी से गिरावट भी बर्ड फ्लू का संकेत हो सकती है। ।इसलिए, आपको स्वयं की चिकित्सा खुद करने से पहले चिकित्सक से परामर्श लें। साथ ही उनके परामर्शनुसार समय पर इसकी जांच करवाएं। जिससे पता लगाया जा सके कि बर्ड फ्लू है या नहीं।

बर्ड फ्लू के कारण

बर्ड फ्लू प्राकृतिक रूप से जंगली जलपक्षी (जंगली बत्तख) नामक पक्षी में होता है और मुर्गी, टर्की, बत्तख और गीस़ जैसे पक्षियों में फैल जाता है। यह रोग संक्रमित पक्षी की बूंदों या स्राव के संपर्क में आने से फैलता है।

बाहरी बाजार, जहां अंडे और पक्षी भीड़-भाड़ वाली और गंदगी भरी परिस्थितियों में बेचे जाते हैं। वह संक्रमण का केंद्र माना गया हैं और व्यापक रूप से यह बीमारी फैलाने का कारण बनते हैं। इसके अलावा संक्रमित कुक्कुट( मुर्गे ) का कच्चा मांस या संक्रमित पक्षियों के अंडे के सेवन से भी बर्ड फ्लू हो जाता है।

बर्ड फ्लू के जोखिम कारक

  • दूषित जगहों पर जाना या उनका सीधा संपर्क एक प्रमुख जोखिम कारक है।
  • पोल्ट्री फॉर्म पर जाने या उसमें काम करने वाले व्यक्ति को इस फ्लू से ग्रसित होने की आशंका अधिक होती है।
  • संक्रमित पक्षियों के संपर्क में आने पर।
  • बीमार पक्षियों का इलाज या देखभाल करने पर।
  • कच्चे या अधपके मुर्गे के मांस या अंडे का सेवन करने पर।
  • संक्रमित पक्षियों के बिना धुले अंडे को छूने पर।
  • बीमार पक्षियों के संक्रमण से संक्रमित पानी को छूने या उससे स्नान करने पर।
  • ऐसे वातावरण में सांस लेने सेजहां संक्रमित पक्षी बेचे जाते हो।

बर्ड फ्लू की रोकथाम और उपचार

बर्ड फ्लू (एवियन इन्फ्लुएंजा) की रोकथाम के लिए सबसे महत्वपूर्ण फ्लू टीकाकरण है। इसके अलावा कुछ खान-पान में बदलाव एवं सावधानी बरतकर इससे बचा जा सकता हैं। आइए चर्चा करते हैं इन सावधानियों के बारे में

  • अपने हाथों को नियमित रूप से गर्म पानी या साबुन से धोएं।
  • संक्रमित या मरे हुए पक्षियों से बिल्कुल दूर रहें।
  • बर्ड फ्लू के संक्रमण के दौरान मांसाहारी भोजन का सेवन न करें।
  • मांस को खरीदते समय साफ-सफाई का ध्यान रखें।
  • खांसते वक्त मुंह को रुमाल या टिश्यू से ढकें।
  • संक्रमण से बचने के लिए सर्दी-जुकाम से ग्रसित होने पर लोगों से दूर रहें।
  • बर्ड फ्लू के मरीज पूरी तरह से आराम करें।
  • पर्याप्त मात्रा में तरल पदार्थों का सेवन करें।
  • उचित और पोषण युक्त भोजन करें।

बर्ड फ्लू के घरेलू उपचार

  • हल्दीहल्दी अपने एंटी इंफ्लेमेंटरी गुणों के लिए जानी जाती है। जो इम्यूनोप्रोटेक्टिव एजेंटों को उत्तेजित करने का भी काम करती है। जिससे बर्ड फ्लू के जोखिम को कम करने में मदद मिलती है। इसके लिए एक गिलास गर्म पानी में एक चुटकी हल्दी का चूर्ण मिलाकर इसका सेवन करें ।
  • अदरकअदरक में मौजूद जिंजरोल और जिंजरोन नामक यौगिक संक्रमण से छुटकारा दिलाने का काम करते हैं। साथ ही रोग-प्रतिरोधक शक्ति बढ़ाने में मदद करते हैं। जिससे रोगजनकों से लड़ने में मदद मिलती है। इसके लिए प्रतिदिन सुबह अदरक की चाय पिएं। इसके अलावा अदरक युक्त चाय में शहद या नींबू मिलाकर सेवन करना फायदेमंद होता है।
  • एस्ट्रैगलसएस्ट्रैगलस एक रोग-प्रतिरोधक क्षमता बढ़ाने वाली जड़ी बूटी के रूप में जाना जाता है। यह इंटरफेरॉन उत्पादन को बढ़ाकर अस्थि मज्जा का समर्थन करता है। इस प्रकार यह जड़ी-बूटी रोगजनकों से लड़ने में मदद करती है। जिससे बर्ड फ्लू के लक्षणों को कम किया जा सकता है। इसके लिए चाय या सूप में एस्ट्रैगैलस की जड़ का पाउडर मिलाकर सेवन करें।
  • लहसुनलहसुन अपने एंटीवायरल और एंटीबायोटिक गुणों के लिए जाना जाता है। यह सभी गुण बर्ड फ्लू के लक्षणों को प्रभावी ढंग से ठीक करते हैं। इसके अलावा लहसुन प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली को भी बढ़ाता है। इसके लिए एक गिलास गुनगुने पानी के साथ लहसुन की एक कली का सेवन रोज़ सुबह खली पेट करें।
  • ग्रीन टीग्रीन टी में पाए जाने वाले कैटेचिन, फेनोलिक यौगिक, अपने शक्तिशाली एंटी-इन्फ्लुएंजा गुणों के लिए जाने जाते हैं। यह सभी यौगिक बर्ड फ्लू के लक्षणों को कम करने में मदद करते हैं।
  • भाप लें दरअसल बर्ड फ्लू के सबसे आम लक्षणों में गले में अधिक मात्रा में बलगम फसा रहना एवं सांस की समस्या को माना जाता है। भाप लेने से श्वास नली की सफाई होती है एवं फसा हुआ बलग़म भी ढीला होकर हट जाता है, जिससे साँस लेने में राहत मिलती है और श्वास समस्याओं में कुछ आराम लगता है। इसके लिए पानी को उबालें। फिर अपने सिर को तौलिए से ढक लें और उबलते हुए पानी की भांप को श्वास के साथ अंदर खीचें और बाहर छोड़ें ।पानी में चाहे तो तुलसी के पत्ते और लौंग भी डाल सकते हैं। श्वास लेने में ज़्यादा अवरोध होने पर, इस प्रक्रिया को दिन में ३-४ बार भी कर सकते हैं

डॉक्टर के पास कब जाएं?

यदि कोई व्यक्ति पोल्ट्री में कार्यरत हो या बर्ड फ्लू महामारी वाले किसी अन्य जगहों पर गया हो। इस दौरान 10 दिनों के अंदर फ्लू के लक्षण देखने को मिलते हैं, तो इस स्थिति में अपने चिकित्सक से तुरंत परामर्श लें।

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Hyperhidrosis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Posted 19 July, 2022

Hyperhidrosis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Hyperhidrosis is a non-threatening medical condition characterized by excessive sweating that is not necessarily related to heat or exercise. The excessive sweating usually occurs in the most active regions of perspiration including the hands, feet, armpits, groin and the facial area. This is due to high concentration of sweat glands in these areas.

People of all genders and ages can be affected by this condition. About 3% of the world’s population is affected with hyperhidrosis.

Classification of Hyperhidrosis

  • Primary hyperhidrosis When excessive sweating is localized (affecting only one body part), it is referred to as primary or focal hyperhidrosis.
  • Primary or focal hyperhidrosis may be further divided by the area affected. For example, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating of the hands or feet. Axillary hyperhidrosis is the excessive sweating of the armpits, while gustatory hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating of the face or chest a few moments after consuming certain foods.
  • Secondary hyperhidrosis When excessive sweating involves the whole body, it is referred to as secondary or generalised hyperhidrosis.

Hyperhidrosis may also be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed later in life). However, most cases of hyperhidrosis tend to start during adolescence. It can affect and deteriorate the quality of life.

Causes of Hyperhidrosis

Sweating helps the body to stay cool. It is perfectly natural. The cause of primary hyperhidrosis is unknown, but it may be caused by overactivity of the nerves responsible for signalling the sweat glands.

When the body temperature rises, the nervous system automatically triggers the sweat glands. With anxiety or nervousness, the problem even gets worse for many sufferers.

Other factors that can play a role include certain food and drinks, caffeine and nicotine. Secondary hyperhidrosis usually results from an underlying medical condition. Conditions that can cause secondary hyperhidrosis includes

  • Cancer.
  • Low blood sugar.
  • Diabetes.
  • Gout.
  • Obesity.
  • Heart attack.
  • Nervous system disorders.
  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • Acromegaly.
  • Menopause.
  • Stroke.
  • Spinal cord injury.

Some infections such as

  • HIV.
  • Malaria.
  • Tuberculosis.

Some medications like

  • NSAIDs.
  • Opioids.
  • Insulin.
  • Tricyclic antidepressants.

Symptoms of Hyperhidrosis

Common signs and symptoms of hyperhidrosis include

  • Frequent sweating is usually unrelated to heat or exercise.
  • Clammy palms of the hand.
  • Clammy soles of the feet.
  • Noticeable sweating that soaks through clothing.

Diagnosis for Hyperhidrosis

To make a diagnosis, the doctor will review your medical history and ask details about your sweating, location (localized or generalized), and time pattern (if it happens at night), if it starts when you are reminded of a traumatic event and any other symptom.

The doctor may try to rule out any underlying condition by ordering blood, urine or other lab tests.

Imaging tests to look for tumors such as Ultrasound, Computed Tomography (CT scan), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scan).

Sweat tests may be carried out, including iodine-starch test, skin conductance or a thermoregulatory sweat test to pinpoint areas of sweating and estimate the severity of your condition.

Treatment for Hyperhidrosis

If the condition is triggered by an underlying condition, the condition is treated first. If no cause is found, the goal of treatment is to control excessive sweating. Treatment options may include

  • Prescription antiperspirant that contains 10% to 20% aluminium chloride.
  • Anticholinergics.
  • Botulinum toxin injection.
  • Iontophoresis, in this procedure, the hands or feet are placed in water and then a gentle electric current is passed through it.
  • Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy, during this procedure, the surgeon cuts, burns or clamps the nerves that carry messages to the sweat glands. It is usually recommended in severe cases which have not responded to other treatments.

Certain alteration in daily activity and lifestyle may help with symptoms

  • Armpit shields to protect garments from sweat.
  • Regular bathing.
  • Shoes and socks made of natural materials.
  • Change socks often.

Home Remedies for Hyperhidrosis

  • Apple cider vinegarUse apple cider vinegar as a natural astringent by applying it to your skin with a cotton swab before going to bed and washing it off in the morning. This can help in reducing the hyperhidrosis symptoms.
  • Baking soda and cornstarch pasteBaking soda and cornstarch helps absorb sweat, lower pH levels and blocks odour. Make your own natural deodorant by mixing baking soda with cornstarch and applying it to clean, dry underarms. For best results, use this natural hyperhidrosis remedy several times a day.
  • Lemon juiceLemon juice is a natural home remedy for hyperhidrosis. For best results, apply fresh lemon to your underarms at night, then take a shower in the morning to remove any residual scent.
  • Drink plenty of waterYour body naturally produces more sweat when you are dehydrated or when your body temperature rises. Therefore, drinking lots of water is beneficial to prevent sweating naturally.

When to see a doctor?

Seek immediate medical help if heavy sweating is accompanied by chest pain, nausea or lightheadedness.

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Hydrocephalus: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Posted 14 July, 2022

Hydrocephalus: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Hydrocephalus is a condition characterized by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, which results in increased pressure in the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It plays an important role in the brain functions by acting as a protective cushion to keep the brain from injury, nourishing the brain and removing waste products of the brain metabolism.

CSF is produced by specialized cells in the choroid plexuses of the brain ventricles. It circulates through the ventricular system in the brain and is absorbed in the bloodstream. When the circulatory path of the CSF is blocked, fluid begins to build up, causing hydrocephalus.

Hydrocephalus can occur at any age, but it occurs mostly among infants and adults aged 60 and above.

Types and Causes of Hydrocephalus

There are different types of hydrocephalus, these include-

Congenital hydrocephalus- Usually present at birth and may be caused by influences or events that occur during fetal development or genetic abnormalities. This may include an infection in the mother during pregnancy. For eg. Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, mumps and spina bifida.

Acquired hydrocephalus- It develops after birth, usually a stroke, meningitis, brain tumor or as result of serious head injury.

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)- A particular form of chronic hydrocephalus that can strike people at any age, but more common in people aged 50 and older. It may result from head trauma, infection, tumor and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Communicating hydrocephalus- It occurs when the flowof blood is blocked after leaving the ventricles. The various neurologic conditions can result in communicating hydrocephalus, including meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Non-communicating hydrocephalus- It occurs when the CSF is blocked along one or more of the thin connections between the ventricles. The blockage may be from a tumor. It is also called obstructive hydrocephalus.

Symptoms of Hydrocephalus

In infants, symptoms may include-

  • An unusually large head.
  • A rapid increase in head size.
  • Poor feeding.
  • Sleepiness.
  • Spina bifida.
  • Vomiting.
  • Irritability.
  • Poor growth.
  • Poor responsiveness to touch.
  • Eyes that appear to gaze downward.

Among toddlers and older children, symptoms may include-

  • Headache.
  • Poor appetite.
  • Poor coordination.
  • Unstable balance.
  • Blurred or double vision.
  • Urinary incontinence.
  • Excessive sleepiness.
  • A decline in school performance.
  • Change in personality.
  • Cross eye.
  • Poor temper control.
  • Delays with previously acquired skills.
  • Muscle spasm.

In older adults, symptoms may include-

  • Memory loss.
  • Loss of thinking.
  • Difficulty walking.

Diagnosis for Hydrocephalus

For congenital hydrocephalus, a routine prenatal ultrasound scan may detect the condition during pregnancy in the developing fetus. If the ultrasound scan shows anything abnormal, additional tests will be performed.

For acquired hydrocephalus, diagnostic techniques usually include examining medical history, carrying out a physical and neurological exam and ordering brain imaging tests such as CT scan or MRI scan.

Treatment for Hydrocephalus

Both congenital and acquired hydrocephalus require prompt treatment to reduce pressure on the brain and the risk of brainstem damage. The brainstem regulates functions such as breathing and heartbeat.

The most common treatment option is the surgical implantation of a shunt. A shunt is a drainage system, which is made up of a long, flexible tube that diverts the flow of fluid into another region of the body, most often the abdominal cavity where it can be absorbed.

People with the condition will usually need to have a shunt system in place for the duration of their life. If the shunt is placed in a child, additional surgeries may be required to insert a longer tubing as they grow.

Another treatment option is the endoscopic third ventriculostomy. In this procedure, the surgeon makes a hole in the bottom of one of the ventricles or between the ventricles, creating a pathway for the fluid to flow out of the brain.

When to consult a doctor?

You should make an appointment with your doctor if you experience fever or recurrence of the original symptoms of hydrocephalus.

Some children with the condition may need an additional care team treatment depending on the severity. The care team may include-

  • Occupational therapist.
  • Developmental therapist.
  • A social worker.
  • Mental health provider.
  • A special education teacher.
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12 Ways to Stop a Panic Attack

Posted 12 July, 2022

12 Ways to Stop a Panic Attack

A panic attack is a sudden and intense attack of fear, panic or anxiety. These are overwhelming and have physical as well as emotional symptoms. When you have a panic attack, you may have difficulty breathing, sweat profusely, trembling, and you may feel your heart beating fast. Some people will also experience chest pain and a feeling of detachment from reality or themselves during a panic attack, which may make them think they are having a heart attack.


Here are some ways to help stop a panic attack


  • Focus on breathingWhile suffering from panic attacks, we are often so stuck up in giving into our fear that we fail to recognize that our breathing becomes erratic and much unmeasured. In order to calm down from a panic attack at home, it is important to focus on breathing. Indulge in deep breathing by inhaling deeply and then exhaling deeply. It helps get rid of shortness of breath and helps in overcoming fear too. This ensures that you can easily prevent hyperventilation and get a good treatment at home itself.
  • Accept the conditionFor a person, it is important for them to accept the fact that they are having an anxiety attack and that would pass over in a quick succession of time. Don't avoid the topic completely because it won't bring you anything good.
  • Block out the world, close your eyesOften, panic attacks begin from the condition of past triggers of trauma. To get rid of the same, the best way to do it is by closing your eyes and letting the stimuli around come to a halt. It helps in bringing forth a better understanding of the situation. Closing the eyes during a panic attack helps in slowing down the excessive stimuli and makes it easier for you to reduce panic attacks and keep them in check.
  • Try LavenderLavender is an amazing treatment option for a panic attack. It helps in relieving the signs of anxiety and fear in individuals mainly because of its relaxing properties. People suffering from panic attacks can effectively calm down by inhaling the smell of lavender. For best effect, put 1 drop of lavender oil on your wrist and rub it. Inhale the scent to help calm down your mind.
  • Be mindfulBeing mindful or rather the practice of mindfulness, has been found to have a remarkable effect, helps to get rid of the signs and symptoms of panic attack. Panic attacks can affect the cause of detachment, so being mindful is very important. For best impacts, feel the texture of the ground or even dig the heels deeper into the ground that can definitely help regain that consciousness back, which is beneficial for helping you get rid of a panic attack.
  • Know your triggersTriggers can be anything from a bad memory to an enclosed place nearby. If you are familiar with these triggers then you are sure to cope much better with the panic attack condition.
  • Muscle relaxation techniqueWhile suffering from a panic attack, there are chances that you could have muscle spasms that contractile issues with your body. One of the best ways to stop a panic attack is to consciously relax one muscle at a time. It is always suggested to know the muscle relaxing methods that work efficiently, and rest will beneficially fall into place.
  • Indulge in light exerciseStudies show that indulging in some light exercises are helpful in managing conditions associated with panic attacks. Any form of light exercise, be it jogging, running, or even working out in the gym can go a long way in promoting the release of hormones known as endorphins, which have a tremendous effect in quickly curing panic attacks. Endorphins have the capability of removing a person from a stressful condition, thus helping in getting rid of a panic attack and anxiety that you are suffering from.
  • Think of happy memoriesEvery single one of us has their happy place, a memory that makes us feel safe and secure and confines the place around us. If you have been struggling with awful memories, the best way to handle the same is by reading your mind to think of something happy and good. When you think of your happy place, picture yourself there and be free. The feeling itself should be enough for the panic attack treatment at home.
  • Chant a mantraA mantra is nothing more than a phrase that helps calm your senses and strengthen your inner core. It is often very effective in treating panic attacks as it helps you focus on only one thing and thus prevents all kinds of unnecessary thoughts from flowing through your mind. As you keep chanting, it does become a lot easier for your physical responses to become slow and let the excruciating stress dissipate easily. It relaxes the muscles and brings forth a calming sensation.
  • Use of benzodiazepineBenzodiazepine is one of the most powerful forms of medication that helps heal panic attacks quickly. This drug is a prescription drug which is why it is necessary for you to have a diagnosis for getting the medication for you. In fact, it is very effective in dealing with the overall condition. The medication comes with its side effects which is why it is important to ensure you take it only in the most extreme conditions only.
  • Talk to professionalSeeking professional help can be very effective in dealing with the conditions associated with your panic attacks. If you have been experiencing recurring panic attacks, the best way to combat the same is by ensuring you do talk to a specialist about the condition.Having someone professional to guide you through the process can be quite effective in handling the situation maturely.
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Sinusitis: Causes, Symptoms and Home remedies

Posted 11 July, 2022

Sinusitis: Causes, Symptoms and Home remedies

Having a cold, headache is usually not a big problem but sometimes this problem can also be a sign of some serious underlying disease. Sinusitis or Sinus comes under the category of a serious problem that occurs due to many reasons like-infection, pollution, allergies, cold and bacterial infection etc.

What is Sinusitis or Sinus?

Inside the bones of the face around the nose have small cavity-like structures filled with air which is called sinus. When a person has a cold or allergy, the sinus tissue or the mucous membrane becomes inflamed. This condition is called sinusitis. This inflammation is caused by an infection which starts as a common cold. After that, it develops completely as a bacterial, viral and fungal infection due to which the person has to face problems like headache, pain in the face and nasal congestion.

Types of Sinuses

Sinus disease is classified on the basis of duration of the infection, which are as follows:

  • Acute sinus infectionThis type of sinus is of the shortest duration. Usually, this infection occurs due to viral infection which lasts only for 3 to 4 weeks or less.
  • Subacute sinus infectionThe sinus symptoms can last for three months. The main reason for this type of infection is bacterial infection or seasonal allergies.
  • Chronic sinus infectionThis type of sinus lasts for a long time. Usually, the symptoms of chronic sinus last for about 12 weeks i.e. 3 months. The main reason for this is due to allergies, infection, mucus and inflammation.
  • Recurrent acute sinusitisThis type of sinus is recurrent. This infection can happen about 4 to 5 times in a year. Also, its symptoms last for at least 1 week each time. Due to recurrent it is called recurrent acute sinusitis.

Common Symptoms of Sinus

  • Frequent runny nose
  • Nasal congestion
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Loss of smell and taste
  • Feeling of swelling and pain around the nose, head, eyes and throat.

Other Symptoms of Sinus are

  • Ear pain.
  • Feeling of pain on the surface of the teeth and upper jaw.
  • Having a sore throat.
  • Increase in cough at night.
  • Bad breath.
  • Feeling tired or weak.
  • Getting nausea.
  • Feeling irritable.

Causes of Sinus

  • Having a cold
  • Virus, fungus and bacterial infection
  • Allergy in nose
  • Polluted environment
  • Exposure to chemical fumes and dust
  • Contact with animals
  • Enlargement of the nasal bone into a pointed shape

Precautions to be taken

  • Take a good rest
  • Avoid smoking
  • Drink plenty of water and other fluids
  • Use a lukewarm facial pack
  • Take steam regularly
  • Avoid going to dusty and soiled places.
  • Stay away from anxiety, stress and depression
  • Wash hands thoroughly before eating
  • Wash hands thoroughly after sneezing, coughing or after coming from the toilet
  • Avoid going in infected and polluted environment

Home remedies of Sinus

  • Essential oilThe use of essential oil as aromatherapy can be beneficial in case of sinus. This therapy helps in destroying the inflammation and bacteria that occur in sinus disease. For this, put 2 to 3 drops of essential oil in a diffuser like basil, peppermint, rosemary, eucalyptus, or frankincense. In this way, it will help relieve sinus swelling./li>
  • Apple cider vinegarApple cider vinegar can be considered to be one of the most effective remedies to treat sinus pain due to its acetic acid that has antimicrobial properties that combats bacterial and viral infections. Pour one spoonful of apple cider vinegar in hot water then take steam which helps in relief.
  • Lemon balmLemon balm is considered an effective remedy in the treatment of sinus. It has analgesic properties that work to relieve headache caused by sinus. For this, massage the head, nose and throat with lemon balm oil or boil some leaves of lemon balm in water and using it as a decoction is also beneficial.
  • Tea and herbal teaHoney tea or herbal tea is one of the good home remedies for sinus because it helps in reducing the symptoms of sinus disease. Therefore, this tea proves to be effective in sinus./li>
  • Ginger teaGinger has analgesic and antibacterial properties which removes swelling and pain. Therefore, using ginger tea containing honey or ginger in any form is beneficial for sinus.
  • GarlicGarlic has antibacterial properties which help to relieve the symptoms of sinus. For this, grind 4 to 5 buds of garlic and put it in hot water and make soup. Drink this soup when it is lukewarm. This gives relief in sinus disease.
  • Tea tree oilTea tree oil has antiseptic, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties which removes headache caused by sinus. For this, put 4 to 5 drops of tea tree oil in hot water and take steam./li>
  • CinnamonCinnamon is effective in treating sinus. It destroys the microorganisms causing sinus. For this, mix a small spoon of cinnamon powder in a glass of warm water and consume it. Doing this for a few days gives relief.
  • Fenugreek seedsFenugreek seeds are also effective in treating sinus. For this, boil fenugreek seeds in water and filter that mixture. Drink it like tea two to three times a day. Doing this regularly for a few days gets rid of sinus.

Medical Treatment Methods for Sinus

  • Saline nasal spraySpray this in your nose multiple times a day to clean your nasal passages./li>
  • Nasal corticosteroidsThese nasal sprays are used to treat and prevent inflammation. Fluticasone (Flonase Allergy Relief, Flonase Sensimist Allergy Relief), budesonide (Rhinocort Allergy), mometasone (Nasonex) and beclomethasone (Beconase AQ, Qnasl) are some examples.
  • DecongestantsThese medications are available in over-the-counter (OTC), prescription liquids, tablets and nasal sprays. Use nasal decongestants for a few days.
  • Allergy medicationsAllergy medications can be used to reduce the symptoms of sinusitis caused by allergies./li>
  • Ginger teaGinger has analgesic and antibacterial properties which removes swelling and pain. Therefore, using ginger tea containing honey or ginger in any form is beneficial for sinus.
  • OTC pain relieversAcetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB) or aspirin relieves the pain.

When to see a doctor

Usually, see a doctor if symptoms:

  • Last longer than 10 days without improving.
  • Include severe symptoms that are not cured by over-the-counter medication (OTC).
  • Include swelling and vision changes around the eyes.
  • Worsen after improving
  • Include a fever that lasts more than 3-4 days.
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What is Rotavirus? Know its Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Posted 05 July, 2022

What is Rotavirus? Know its Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Rotavirus is an infected virus that causes vomiting and diarrhea (watery stools) particularly among infants and young children. Adults can also be affected but they tend to get less sick than young children. The risk of rotavirus infection is highest in winter and spring (December to June).

Rotavirus is highly contagious. It is transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the feces (stools) of an infected person. This can happen if you touch a contaminated object, food, water, hands or mouth of an infected person. The virus enters your body when your unclean hands touch your nose or mouth.

Symptoms of Rotavirus

It usually takes about 48 hours after initial exposure to rotavirus before symptoms develop. This period is called the "incubation period" for the virus. These symptoms are

  • Vomiting
  • High fever
  • Dehydration
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Irritability
  • Excessive fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite

Causes of Rotavirus

Anyone can be infected with rotavirus at any age. You can catch the virus through exposure to food or objects that are contaminated with it. It is transmitted by the oral-fecal route, which means that a person carrying the virus can spread it by touching objects or preparing food without washing the hands properly after using the washroom.

This virus attacks the lining of the small intestine through the physiological process of osmosis, fluids and electrolytes flow into the digestive system, causing abdominal cramps, weight loss, low blood pressure, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea.

How to prevent the spread of Rotavirus?

  • If your baby is infected with rotavirus, be careful to wash your hands after changing diapers and before preparing food, serving, or eating.
  • Use liquid soap in warm running water. Dry your hands well after washing.
  • Clean the toilets regularly with a disinfectant. Clean the flush handles, toilet seats, sink faucets, bathroom surfaces, and doorknobs with hot water and detergent. Disposable towels should be used.
  • It is best for infected children and adults to stay away from childcare centers, schools, work and other places so that they do not infect other people.

What vaccines can be taken for Rotavirus?

To prevent rotavirus infection and reduce its complications, parents should make sure their children receive the vaccine, which is available in two forms.

  • Rotarix:This vaccine is given in two doses to infants aged 2 months and 4 months.
  • RotaTeq:The vaccine is given orally in three doses, often at 2, 4, and 6 months.

Children with a history of severe combined immune deficiency or those who are already seriously ill should not take the vaccine.

Treatment and Home Remedies for Rotavirus

If you have rotavirus, you can usually treat your illness at home with a few simple methods

  • Hydration:The most important thing you can do is focus on staying hydrated. It is important to drink water. If you prefer the taste, you might consider an oral rehydration solution or an energy drink that contains electrolytes, effective in treating vomit or diarrhea.
  • Diet:Eat cake or toast as these are usually the most tolerable foods. Avoid food that upsets your stomach, such as oily, fried or spicy foods.
  • Rest:Try to rest during illness so you don't feel tired.
  • Medications:Over-the-counter diarrhea medications can prevent stomach upset and relieve your diarrhea, but remember that they often have little effect.

When to call your doctor?

Most people can manage rotavirus on their own, but medical care is needed in some cases.

Call your doctor or seek emergency medical help if you or your child experience any of the following

  • Fever over 100 degrees
  • Fever that lasts more than three or four days
  • Blood in the stool or dark stools
  • Vomiting blood
  • Lethargy (extreme fatigue)
  • Confusion
  • Very little or no urine
  • Weak or fast heartbeat
  • Dry mouth
  • Cold sensation in hands and feet
  • Hard to breathe
  • Difficulty in walking or standing
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What is Piles (Hemorrhoids)? Know its Types, Causes, Symptoms and Home remedies

Posted 06 July, 2022

What is Piles (Hemorrhoids)? Know its Types, Causes, Symptoms and Home remedies

Piles or Hemorrhoids is a very common and painful disease. In this condition, swelling occurs at the bottom of the rectum and anus. As a result, swelling beginsto form inside the anus or on the initial parts of the rectum. These swellings sometimes stay inside, sometimes protrude  out from anal opening. Around60 to 70 percent of people have to go through the problem of piles at some point of their age. If it is not treated ontime, the pain can increase significantly.

What is Piles (Hemorrhoids)?

Piles are lumps that growin and around the anus. In the lining of the anal canal, there is a network of small veins (blood vessels). These veins sometimes become wider and full of blood than usual. The blocked veins and overlying tissue may then form in one or more swellings. Piles often don't cause any problem, but can cause bleeding sometimes. If it causes bleeding or pain, you should immediately see a doctor.

Types of Piles

Piles falls into 4 different types. These include

  • Internal Piles:They are located deep within the rectum and are therefore invisible to the naked eye. They might not cause any pain, but their presence is characterized by symptoms of bleeding through the anus.
  • External Piles:They are formed on the outer lining of the anal region and causes extreme pain while passing stools or sitting. Sometimes, they may not be visible and develop like lumps.
  • Reduces inflammation:Carnosol and carnosic acid are two powerful antioxidants, which help in neutralizing harmful particles like free radicals and anti-inflammatory compounds found in rosemary that help reduce inflammation in muscles, joints, and blood vessels.
  • Prolapsed Piles:When internal piles swell and stick outside the anus, the situation is known as prolapsed piles. These lumps cause discomfort or pain, accompanied by itching and burning.
  • Thrombosed Piles:These swollen lumps around the anus are blood clots within the hemorrhoid tissue. Due to the lack of blood supply to your rectal tissues, thrombosed piles must be treated promptly to avoid serious complications.

Symptoms of Piles

  • Bleeding from the rectum while passing stools.
  • Feeling of something coming downwards while passing stools.
  • Feeling difficulty while passing bowel movements.
  • Mucous discharge during bowel movements.
  • Frequent urination but not defecating during bowel movements.
  • Formation of one or more hard lumps around the anus
  • Itching, burning, redness and swelling around the anus.
  • Unbearable pain during bowel movements.

Risk Factors of Piles

The risk factors for developing piles are

  • Prolonged constipation.
  • Excessive straining during bowel movements.
  • Hard and thick stools.
  • Sitting in the toilet for a long time.
  • Vigorous tension.
  • Chronic diarrhea.
  • Colon cancer.
  • Alcoholic liver diseases (causing hypertension and ascites)
  • Lifting heavy objects.
  • Poor posture (lack of erect posture)
  • Loss of tone of the rectus muscle (muscle in the rectum).
  • Episiotomy (This is a surgical incision made by the obstetrician during delivery to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal without any complications).
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
  • Surgeries related to the anal canal and rectum.

What causes Piles?

Piles are caused due to several reasons

  • Watery or solid stools.
  • Low fiber diet.
  • Liver disease causing high blood pressure in the vessels supplying the anus and rectum (portal hypertension), Ascites (buildup of fluid in the abdomen).
  • Family history.
  • Prolonged diarrhea.
  • Exercise to lift heavy objects.
  • Rectal cancers.
  • Excessive weight gain.
  • Continuous coughing, sneezing and vomiting.
  • Prolonged squatting while defecating.
  • Anal intercourse.

Diagnosis of Piles

If your doctor suspects you have piles, he or she will perform a visual examination of your anus to diagnose piles. They may also perform a digital rectal examination to look for signs of piles within the anus.

Your doctor may also prescribe an additional test called a sigmoidoscopy (small fibre optical camera) that your doctor uses to diagnose internal piles. The sigmoidoscope is placed in a small tube and inserted into the rectum. It provides a clear view of the inside of the rectum and shows abnormalities in the rectum.

The doctor may also prescribe other tests such as colonoscopy, anoscopy, and proctoscopy, which can clearly show the presence of internal hemorrhoids.

How to prevent Piles?

Practices that can prevent Piles (Hemorrhoids) from developing

  • Eat a high-fiber diet that includes fruits (pears, bananas, apples, raspberries), (lentils, black beans, lima beans), vegetables (green beans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts), and whole grains (oatmeal, barley, brown rice). The recommended daily fiber intake is 20-38 grams for both men and women.
  • Drink enough water (6-8 glasses of water).
  • Practice good bowel habits, such as going to the washroom as soon as you feel like having a bowel movement.
  • Regular exercise (hemorrhoids can be prevented by staying active and maintaining a reasonable BMI).
  • Avoid straining during bowel movements.
  • Avoid sitting for long hours, especially on the toilet, prolonged squatting (knees and thighs are bent when the body weight falls on the feet).
  • Additional fibers (Methylcellulose, Calcium polycarbophil, and psyllium) can be used to increase fiber absorption in the body.
  • Stool softeners can sometimes be used for stress-free bowel movements.

Home Remedies for Piles

  • Black cumin seeds:Take 1/2 tablespoon of powdered roasted black cumin seeds (shah jeera) with a glass of lukewarm water once a day to get rid of hard stools and piles.
  • Radish juice:Radish juice taken in the morning and night is one of the best home remedies for treating hemorrhoids. Start with 1/4 cup and gradually increase to 1/2 cup over a period of 1 month. Topical application of radish paste mixed with honey can help relieve pain.
  • Figs:Figs are one of the best ayurvedic treatments for piles. Wash 3-4 figs. Soak in a glass of water overnight. Eat them in the morning. Repeat at night.
  • Ripe bananas:Boil 1 ripe banana in 1 cup of milk, mash it well. Consuming this mixture at least 3-4 times a day will help relieve the pain associated with hemorrhoids.
  • Bitter gourdjuice:Crush the bitter gourd leaves and squeeze out the juice. Mix 3 tablespoons of extract in 1 glass of buttermilk and drink on an empty stomach every morning for one month to treat hemorrhoids.
  • Buttermilk:Drink a glass of buttermilk with 1/4 teaspoon of carom seed powder (ajwain) and a pinch of rock salt (kala namak). Buttermilk is recommended as part of a regular diet and is effective in piles.
  • Almond oil:Dip a cotton swab in almond oil and apply it on the swellings to get relief in piles.
  • Sitz bath technique:Adding warm water to the bathtub and sittingfor 10-15 minutes reduces the pain and burning of hemorrhoids and the swelling is more,you may add a teaspoon of turmeric powder to it.

When to visit a doctor?

If you bleed during bowel movements or have hemorrhoids that don't improve after a week of home treatment, talk to your doctor. Get emergency help if you have heavy rectal bleeding, dizziness or fainting.

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Motion Sickness: Causes, Symptoms and Home Remedies

Posted 06 July, 2022

Motion Sickness: Causes, Symptoms and Home Remedies

People often struggle with issues such as nausea and anxiety while traveling. This problem is known   as motion sickness in medical language. It is characterized by sweating, dizziness and restlessness. Motion sickness is most common in children from 5 to 12 years, women and the elderly. Let's study in detail about motion sickness through this article.

What is Motion Sickness?

Motion sickness is a physical discomfort (vomiting) in a state of motion. It usually doesn't cause any long-term problems but the symptoms can put a person in distress especially if you are travelling for a long time. In most cases, the body adapts to this condition.

Symptoms of Motion Sickness

The most common symptoms of motion sickness are nausea and anxiety. In addition, other symptoms are

  • Feeling of discomfort.
  • Lack of interest in eating.
  • Sour belching.
  • Blurred appearance.
  • Severe headache.
  • Excessive secretion of saliva in the mouth.
  • Frequent yawning.
  • Dizziness.
  • Feeling like vomiting constantly.
  • Heavy sweating.
  • Feeling difficult to concentrate.
  • Inability to walk in severe cases.

Why does Motion Sickness happen?

When the brain receives conflicting messages from the sensory system (inner ear, eyes, muscles and sensory receptors), the brain produces many mixed signals. As a result, signs and symptoms of the disease appear whilemoving. This problem usually occurs while traveling.

Causes of Motion Sickness

There is no known cause of motion sickness. Some of the main reasons are

  • Height swing.
  • Lack of interest in eating.
  • Sour belching.
  • Blurred appearance.
  • Severe headache.
  • Excessive secretion of saliva in the mouth.
  • Frequent yawning.
  • Dizziness.
  • Feeling like vomiting constantly.

Risk Factors for Motion Sickness

  • Vertigo (a feeling of dizziness and fear)
  • Migraine problems
  • Hormonal changes during pregnancy
  • Menstruation

Prevention for Motion Sickness

  • Avoid seeing people who vomit while traveling.
  • Do not eat oily and spicy food during the trip.
  • Avoid smoking and consumption of other nicotine substances.
  • Avoid reading books while traveling.
  • Do not sit facing backwards in buses.
  • Breathe slowly and deeply as you travel.
  • Don't look outside while sitting near a window seat while travelling.

Home Remedies for Motion Sickness

  • Ginger:Ginger is a natural remedy to prevent motion sickness. Its consumption helps prevent gastric arrhythmias (a strange feeling in the stomach) and increases plasma vasopressin (a hormone). Thus, it is useful in motion sickness. Just chew small pieces of ginger during the trip.
  • Mint:Motion sickness symptoms can be reduced by consuming mint tea. Mint has an antiemetic effect that reduces nausea and vomiting. Place a few drops of peppermint oil on a cotton swab and smell it.
  • Lemon:Consuming lemon is very beneficial to get relief in motion sickness. Using it while traveling will reduce the problem of vomiting or nausea to some extent. Squeeze a lemon in a glass of water and drink it.
  • Pickle:Motion sickness symptoms like nausea, vomiting, restlessness, etc., can upset the electrolyte balance in the body. This makes the problem even more complex. In this case, consuming pickles will be beneficial as it controls electrolyte levels in the body and also maintains the good taste of the mouth.
  • Chamomile tea:Drinking chamomile tea is also considered good for motion sickness. It acts as a digestive relaxant and helps to cope with a strange feeling in the stomach.
  • Licorice root:Licorice root is effective in treating motion sickness. It reduces many stomach problems like nausea and vomiting. Therefore, consuming a decoction of licorice root is considered a good remedy for motion sickness.
  • Acupressure:Acupressure can provide tremendous relief in motion sickness. To do this, identify the raised or uneven part just below your wrist and press your middle and index fingers on it for up to 30 seconds.
  • Ice:If you're in a situation where you can't find any other remedy, sucking an ice cube can be an easy way to relieve motion sickness.

Medications to Prevent Motion Sickness

While home remedies are effective, medications are also a great way to prevent motion sickness and are best taken before you travel.

  • Scopolamine:It is the most commonly prescribed medicine for motion sickness. It must be taken before symptoms appear. It is available as a patch that is placed behind the ear 6-8 hours before the trip.
  • Promethazine:It should be taken 2 hours before travelling. The effect lasts 6-8 hours. Side effects can include drowsiness and dry mouth.
  • Cyclizine:It is the most effective medicine when taken at least 30 minutes before a trip. It is not recommended for children under the age of 6 years.
  • Dimenhydrinate:It is great in relieving the symptoms of motion sickness. It should be taken every 4-8 hours.
  • Meclizine (Bonine):Most effective medicine taken 1 hour before travelling. It is not recommended for children under 12 years of age as side effects may include drowsiness and dry mouth.
  • Note:Do not take medicines without consulting your doctor as they might cause certain side effects while reacting differently for each body type.

When to see a doctor?

Motion sickness usually goes away once the trip is over. But if the feeling of vomiting, stomach irritation, headache, or chest pain persist for a longer duration, call your doctor.

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Laryngitis: Everything You Need To Know

Posted 16 June, 2022

Laryngitis: Everything You Need To Know

Larynx, also known as voice box, is home to the vocal cords. These are vital to the processes of breathing, swallowing and talking. The vocal cords are two small folds of mucous membrane covering cartilage and muscle that vibrate to produce sound.Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx from overuse, irritation or infection. Most cases of laryngitis improve within a week or two. Laryngitis that lasts more than three weeks can be a sign of a serious underlying medical condition.

Symptoms of Laryngitis

Laryngitis is classified as acute if it lasts less than three weeks and chronic if symptoms last more than three weeks. Symptoms of chronic laryngitis include-
  • Hoarseness or croakiness.

  • Dry throat.

  • Dry irritating cough.

  • Loss of voice.

  • Fever.

  • Swelling of the glands in your neck or lymph nodes.

  • Sore throat.

  • Constant urge to clear the throat.

  • Difficulty swallowing.

  • Shortness of breath, predominantly in children.

  • Headache.

  • Tiredness.

  • Pain in the throat.

  • Difficulty in speech.

Causes of Laryngitis


The causes of acute and chronic laryngitis differs and are as follows-


Acute laryngitis- Acute laryngitis is a temporary condition caused by overusing the vocal cords. It can also be caused by an infection, straining your vocal cords by talking or yelling or drinking too much alcohol.

Chronic laryngitis- Chronic laryngitis results from long term exposure to irritants. It is usually more severe and has longer lasting effects than acute laryngitis.

Chronic laryngitis can be caused by-

  • Frequent exposure to harmful chemicals or allergies.

  • Heartburn (acid reflux) or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which back-flow of stomach acid into the esophagus can reach the throat and irritate the vocal cords.

  • Smoking or being around smokers.

  • Overusing your voice.

  • Low grade yeast infections caused by frequent use of inhalers.

  • Cancer, paralysis of the vocal cords or changes in vocal cord shape as you age can also cause persistent hoarseness and sore throat.

How to Prevent Laryngitis?


The risk of laryngitis can be reduced by-

  • Drinking plenty of water,staying hydrated helps keep mucus in the throat thin and clear easily.

  • Avoiding upper respiratory tract infections by getting an annual flu vaccination, avoiding close contact with people who have a cold or flu, washing your hands regularly.

  • Avoiding inhalation of environmental irritants,likesmoke or dust, especially if you have an upper respiratory tract infection.

  • Not smoking and avoiding passive smoke.

  • Not drinking too much alcohol.

  • Avoiding shouting or singing loudly, People who use their voices regularly should be trained by a voice coach to prevent larynx injuries.

  • Avoiding regular throat clearing. This can irritate the larynx and increase swelling in the vocal cords.

  • Raising your head with a pillow, if you have heartburn or GERD. This can prevent stomach acid from reaching your larynx when you lie down or sleep.

  • Avoiding foods that cause heartburn or GERD: chocolate, coffee, alcohol and spicy, fatty, and acidic foods.

Diagnosis for Laryngitis


Many times you can be evaluated with a thorough complete history and physical examination. The doctor will pay particular attention to the affected patient's ears, nose, throat and neck.

If symptoms are severe, especially in kids, the doctor may order a neck or chest X-ray.

Laryngoscopy- The doctor may also choose to look at the patient’s throat with a small, light scope. This thin scope is inserted through the nose after numbing the nose. The procedure only takes a few minutes and gives the information regarding the status of the recurrent laryngeal nerve that controls the movement of the vocal folds.

Biopsy- If the laryngoscopy shows any suspicious areas, a sample tissue (biopsy) may be taken under a microscope to look for throat cancer.

Treatment for Laryngitis

The best treatment is to rest your voice. Most cases of laryngitis improve within one to two weeks without requiring medical treatment. In severe cases, treatment includes-

Medications- A doctor may prescribe;

  • Corticosteroids which are used to provide relief in inflammation or swelling of the body.

  • Antihistamines used to prevent any allergy that is causing laryngitis.

  • Vocal therapy if you have laryngitis due to straining your voice.

Home Remedies for Laryngitis


Apple cider vinegar-

It has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties which can be helpful in treating laryngitis caused due to infections and reduces the swelling of the larynx. For this, mix vinegar with honey in water and drink this solution.


Ginger contains antimicrobial properties which may help in treating the infection in the throat. For this, cut ginger in slices in some water and boil it for 10 minutes. Strain the water and allow it to cool down to room temperature. Drink this decoction.

Lemon and honey-

Honey has astringent properties which soothes the sore throat and lemon has antimicrobial properties which might help clear out the throat infection. For this, add lemon juice in honey and mix it well. Consume this decoction.


Onion is rich in expectorant properties which is used to treat laryngitis and gives relief from cough and mucus. Cut onion in pieces and boil in four cups of water until the mixture thickens to a syrup-like consistency. Add 2-3 tablespoons of syrup to a glass of warm water. Add honey and lemon to this and drink it.

Salt water-

Gargling with warm salt water can kill bacteria and viruses in the throat and mouth. It can help treat laryngitis effectively.


Garlic contains a compound called allicin, which has antimicrobial properties. This can help treat laryngitis. Cut a garlic in two pieces and slowly suck the juice from these pieces. Spit it after a few minutes and rinse your mouth.

Licorice root-

Licorice root exhibits antimicrobial and antiviral properties. These properties can help in treating laryngitis. Boil the licorice root in water for 3-5 minutes. Now strain the water and drink this herbal tea.

When to see a doctor?


Laryngitis in adults is not serious, but you should see a doctor if you have a hoarse throat, coughing up blood, have a temperature above 103 degree Fahrenheit, or have trouble breathing for more than 2 weeks.

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Obesity- Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Posted 15 June, 2022

Obesity- Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Obesity is defined as excess or abnormal fat accumulation that may increase the risk of other health problems. There can be several reasons for being overweight such as a person can be overweight from extra muscle or water, as well as from excess fat.

Obesity is mainly a lifestyle disorder caused by an unhealthy diet, lack of sleep and exercise, and in some cases, it develops due to genetic factors or pre-existing health disorders.

Symptoms of Obesity

Obese people can face several symptoms like-

  • Breathing disorders (sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

  • Depression

  • Diabetes

  • Cancer

  • Gallbladder or liver disease

  • High blood pressure

  • High cholesterol

  • Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Stroke

  • Coronary artery (heart) disease

  • Reproductive system disorders

What causes Obesity?

For most people, obesity occurs gradually by taking in more calories than what is needed by the body.

Consuming more calories than what your body can burn leads to obesity. This is due to the unused calories stored in the body. Obesity can be caused by-

  • Eating more food than your body needs.

  • Drinking too much alcohol.

  • Absence of physical activities in daily life.

Medical problems or treatments that can cause weight gain, includes-

  • Inactive thyroid (hypothyroidism).

  • Medications such as birth control pills, antidepressants and antipsychotics.

  • Stress, mood swings, lack of motivation, changing emotions or poor access to healthy options can cause people to consume more calories than they need.

How is Obesity Diagnosed?


Body Mass Index (BMI)

  • It is difficult to measure body fat directly. Your doctor will measure your height and weight to calculate your BMI and determine whether you are overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI) is a popular method for determining a healthy weight.
  • BMI calculates a healthy weight based on your height. Since both height and weight are taken into account, this is a more accurate guide than just weight.

How to calculate BMI

  • Multiply your weight by 318.875 kgs.

  • Divide the answer by your height in inches.

  • Divide that answer by your height in inches again.

Then, see what category your BMI falls into-

  • Underweight- Below 18.5

  • Healthy-18.5-24.9

  • Overweight-25.0-29.9

  • Obese-30.0-39.9

  • Morbidly obese- Over 40

Other tests

Your doctor may also measure your blood pressure, blood sugar and lipid (cholesterol) levels to assess your risk for other obesity-related conditions.

Treatment for Obesity

Try to focus on weight loss methods that can be achieved by-

  • Consuming less calories

  • Doing more activities and sports

Practices and therapies for weight loss are-


Diet-A manageable weight loss goal is 1 to 2 pounds per week. Fat has more calories per gram as carbohydrates or protein. If you exclude carbohydrates, you should still limit your fat intake. Choose healthy fats like monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils.

Regular exercise-To lose weight effectively, most people need 60 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, most days of the week. Often take the stairs instead of lifts or escalators.

Surgery-In general, weight loss surgery (bariatric surgery) may be considered if your BMI is 40 or more, or your BMI is 30-35 or more and you have at least one medical condition directly related to obesity.

Medications- Certainmedicines like Adipex-P, Phentermine, Topamax, Topiramate and Contrave are effective in weight loss. Note- Do not take any medicines without consulting a doctor as it may lead to certain side effects.


Home Remedies for Obesity


  • Apple cider vinegar-

Apple cider vinegar is a rich source of acetic acid which has anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties that promotes weight loss. Add a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to a glass of warm water, Mix well and add a little honey. Drink this twice a day.

  • Green tea-

Green tea is a rich source of catechins and caffeine and plays an important role in weight loss. Add a teaspoon of green tea in a cup of hot water. Soak for 5 to 7 minutes and strain. Consume it twice to thrice daily.

  • Black pepper-

Black pepper contains a compound called piperine, which gives it a pungent taste. Piperine has fat-reducing and lipid-lowering properties, which can help you lose weight.  Add a teaspoon of powdered black pepper to your tea, salad, or other dish.

  • Cranberry juice-

Cranberry juice is a rich source of antioxidants that help flush toxins from your body and boost your metabolism. Thus, it can help promote weight loss. Drink a glass of cranberry juice 2 to 3 times a day.

  • Garlic-

Garlic has anti-obesity properties that can help you lose weight naturally. Add one to two teaspoons of grated garlic to dishes.

  • Yogurt-

Yogurt improves your digestive system and can help increase your metabolism. Thus, it facilitates weight loss. Consume a bowl of yogurt once a day.

  • Curry leaves-

Curry leaves lowers your cholesterol and triglyceride levels and helps you lose weight naturally. Take 7-8 curry leaves and consume them on an empty stomach in the morning.

  • Ginger-

Ginger increases metabolism and reduces hunger. It also increases thermogenesis which helps burn excess fat. Add a teaspoon of grated ginger into a glass of hot water. Soak for 5-7 minutes and strain. Add some honey to the ginger tea and mix well. Drink it before it gets cold.

When to see a doctor?

If you are concerned about your weight related health problems, ask your doctor about managing obesity. Your doctor can evaluate your health risks and discuss your weight loss options. A dietician can also help you manage your meal plan for optimum intake of nutrients and avoid food that leads to weight gain.

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Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia): Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Posted 09 June, 2022

Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia): Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Some people may not be able to swallow at all or have difficulty in swallowing liquids, food or saliva. Difficulty swallowing is a disorder which leads to the inability to swallow food or liquids easily. When this happens, eating becomes a challenge. Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty swallowing. This is usually an indication of a problem with the esophagus (tube that moves food and liquids from the back of the mouth to the stomach).

Dysphagia makes it difficult to intake enough calories and fluids to nourish the body and can lead to other serious medical problems. It can happen at any age but is more common in older people.

Symptoms of Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia)

If you have dysphagia, you may experience some of the following symptoms-

  • Pain while swallowing (odynophagia).
  • Choking.
  • Being hoarse.
  • Feeling like something is stuck in the throat or chest.
  • Vomiting up food after you swallow it.
  • Bad breath.
  • Lack of interest in food.
  • Drooling.
  • Weight loss.
  • Frequent heartburn.
  • Dehydration.

What Causes Difficulty Swallowing?

Swallowing is complex and involves many muscles and nerves. Any condition that weakens or damages the muscles and nerves used for swallowing, or narrows the pharynx or esophagus can cause dysphagia. Some of the causes of dysphagia are-

Poor eating habits-Taking large bites or eating too fast can cause dysphagia. Do not drink water while eating. Dysphagia can also occur when you are unable to chew properly due to pain or missing teeth or dentures.

Nerve and muscle diseases-People who have had a stroke or Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy may have difficulty swallowing. This can cause the nerves and muscles in the esophagus (the tube that runs from the mouth and throat to the stomach) to stop working properly. This can cause food to move slowly or get stuck in the esophagus.

Problems with the esophagus-For example, conditions such as acid reflux can damage the esophagus and cause scar tissue to form. Scar tissue can narrow the opening of the esophagus and cause dysphagia.

Other disorders-Cancer, enlarged thyroid or an enlarged heart can put pressure on the esophagus and cause dysphagia.

Diagnosis for Difficulty swallowing

Your doctor will perform a physical exam and perform various tests to determine the cause of your swallowing problem-

Barium X-ray-In this patient is asked to drink barium solution that covers the path of esophagus leading to its clear visualization through X-ray. Your doctor can then see changes in the shape of the esophagus and assess muscular activity.

Your healthcare provider may also ask you to swallow solid foods or barium-coated pills to monitor the muscles in your throat as you swallow, or check for blockages in your esophagus that liquid barium solutions may not detect.

Endoscopic visual assessment of swallowing-Your doctor may use a special camera and a lighted tube (endoscope) to examine your throat while you are trying to swallow.

Esophageal muscle test (manometry)-In manometry, a small tube is inserted into the esophagus and connected to a pressure recorder to measure the muscle contractions of the esophagus during swallowing.

Scanning- This may include a CT scan, which combines a series of X-rays and computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissues of your body or an MRI scan, which uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of organs and  tissues.

Treatment for Difficulty Swallowing

Some treatment methods for dysphagia are-

Exercises-Some exercises can help coordinate the swallowing muscles or re-stimulate the nerves that trigger the swallowing reflex.

Swallowing techniques-You can also learn how to put food in your mouth or position your body and head to help with swallowing. Swallowing exercises and techniques can help if your dysphagia is caused by a neurological problem such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson'sdisease.

Esophageal enlargement-If you have a narrow esophageal sphincter (achalasia) or an esophageal stricture, your doctor may use an endoscope with a special balloon to gently stretch and dilate your esophagus, or insert a flexible tube to stretch (widen) your esophagus.

Surgery-Esophageal tumors or achalasia may require surgery to clear the esophagus.

Medications-Swallowing difficulties associated with GERD can be treated with oral medications that are prescribed to reduce stomach acid.

Diet-Depending on the cause of dysphagia, your doctor may prescribe a special diet to help relieve your symptoms.

Exercises to treat Dysphagia

Swallowing improvement

Step 1: Collect the saliva in your mouth in the middle of your tongue.

Step 2: Keep your lips pressed.

Step 3: Swallow all the saliva at once, like swallowing pills.

Dynamic shaker

Step 1: Lie on your back on a flat side. Make sure your shoulders are close to the surface and don't use a pillow or headrest.

Step 2: Keep your shoulders on the surface and lift your chin as if trying to look at your feet.

Step 3: Lower your head back to the surface.

Step 4: Repeat 30 times. Then rest for 2 minutes. Repeat as many times as directed by a healthcare professional.

Jaw thrust

Step 1: Press your lower jaw as often as possible, placing your lower teeth in front of your upper teeth.

Step 2: Hold the position for some time prescribed by your doctor.

Step 3: Repeat as many times as directed by your doctor or physical therapist.

Masako maneuver

Step 1: Take your tongue out of your mouth.

Step 2: Gently bite your tongue to keep it in place.

Step 3: Try to swallow while holding your tongue between your teeth.

Step 4: Release your tongue. Then repeat as often as directed by the doctor.

Supraglottic maneuver

Step 1: Collect saliva in your mouth.

Step 2: Take a deep breath and hold your breath.

Step 3: Swallow while holding breath.

Step 4: Cough immediately after swallowing.

Step 5: Once you do this with saliva, you can try the food or drink as directed by the doctor.

Hyoid's lift maneuver

Step 1: Gather materials - straw, paper towel and a cup. You can start with 3 to 5 sheets of paper and work your way up to 10 as your strength increases.

Step 2: Put the straw in your mouth.

Step 3: Suck the straw by picking up a piece of paper with the suction formed.

Step 4: Keep the suction strong enough to transfer each sheet of paper to the cup.

Step 5: Stop sucking and drop the paper into the cup.

Step 6: Repeat this until all the pieces of paper are inside the cup.

When to see a doctor?

Call your doctor if swallowing problems don't improve or you are experiencing health issues like-

  • Fever or shortness of breath.
  • Weight loss.
  • Vomit up blood.
  • Asthma is getting worse.
  • Suffocation during or after eating or drinking.
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Know the Symptoms, Causes and Treatment for Hypothermia

Posted 08 June, 2022

Know the Symptoms, Causes and Treatment for Hypothermia

Hypothermia is a medical condition where the body loses more heat than it produces. It  occurs when a person's body temperature drops below 35°C (95°F)  whereas normal body temperature is around 38 °C (98.6 °F). It is normally caused by exposure to cold weather or immersion in cold water. When your body temperature drops, your nervous system, heart, and other organs cannot function properly. If left untreated, hypothermia can lead to complete heart and respiratory system failure and may eventually cause death.

Signs and Symptoms of Hypothermia

Hypothermia is classified in three different stages-

Mild Hypothermia-

Mild Hypothermia actually occurs when the body temperature drops below 95 degrees. Symptoms in this stage includes-

  • Uncontrolled shivering
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Hunger
  • Nausea
  • Dry skin
  • Fast heart rate
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Impaired memory, judgment and thinking skills
  • Loss of control over body movements
  • Frequent urination
  • Slurred talk

Moderate Hypothermia-

This condition is when Mild hypothermia worsens and body temperature drops below 90 degrees and turns into moderate hypothermia. Symptoms in this stage are-

  • Shivering stops
  • Body temperature of 82–90°F
  • Persistent decline in thinking ability
  • Lethargy
  • Dilated pupils
  • Slow breathing rate
  • Slow heart rate
  • Low blood pressure

Severe Hypothermia-

Once you develop moderate hypothermia, the situation must be treated or it can continue to worsen and develop severe hypothermia. Symptoms of this stage include-

  • Body temperature of less than 82°F
  • Congestion in lungs
  • Loss of reflexes
  • Continuous decline in blood pressure and heart rate
  • Heart and lung failure

Causes of Hypothermia

Hypothermia occurs when your body loses heat more quickly than it generates. Mostly, hypothermia is caused due to exposure to cold weather or cold water. However, prolonged exposure to an environment cooler than your body can lead to hypothermia if you dress improperly or are unable to control the condition.

Specific conditions can also cause hypothermia such as-

  • Wearing clothes that are not warm enough for the cold weather.
  • Exposure to cold weather for too long.
  • Being unable to get out of wet clothes or move to a warm location.
  • Falling into the cold water.
  • Living in a house that is too cold due to poor heating or too much air conditioning.

Risk Factors of Hypothermia

Risk factors for hypothermia include:

Fatigue-Your tolerance for cold decreases when you are tired.

Older age-The body's ability to regulate temperature and cold may decline with age. Some parents may not be able to communicate when they are in a cold place.

Mental problems-People with mental illness, dementia, or other conditions that impair judgment may not dress appropriately for the weather or may not understand the risk of cold weather. People with dementia can wander away from home, making them more likely to stay outside in cold or humid weather.

Alcohol and drug use-Alcohol can provide warmth to your body from inside, but it dilates your blood vessels, which causes heat loss more quickly from the skin's surface. The body's natural shivering response is reduced in people who have been drinking.

In addition, using alcohol or drugs for entertainment purposes can affect your judgment on whether to go indoors in cold weather or to wear warm clothes. If a person is drunk and falls in cold weather, they are more likely to develop hypothermia.

Certain medical conditions-Several health disorders affect your body's ability to regulate body temperature. Examples include an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), malnutrition or anorexia nervosa, diabetes, severe arthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury and trauma.

Medications-Some medications can change the body's ability to control its temperature. Examples include some antidepressants, narcotic pain relievers, antipsychotics and sedatives.

Prevention methods for Hypothermia

You can prevent most cases of hypothermia by following methods-

  • Be prepared for cold weather. Warm clothes and hats retain heat. Wear layers and  prepare the body for any change in climate.
  • Proper winter clothing includes mittens, raincoat or jacket, two pairs of socks, scarf and hat.
  • If you get wet, change your clothes immediately. Find a warm and sheltered place.
  • Keep extra things in your car while traveling. This includes clothing, food, water and blankets.
  • Don't eat snow or drink alcohol. This lowers your body temperature.
  • Stay active in cold temperatures to generate body heat and conserve energy.
  • Keep your home warm above 68°F. Close vents and doors in rooms.

Treatment for Hypothermia

See a doctor right away if you suspect you, or someone else has hypothermia. Treatment includes-

  • Get the person to a warm place as soon as possible.
  • Give the person warm clothes. If the clothes are wet, take them off.
  • Cover the face with a blanket or towel. If possible, use an electric blanket or heating pad.
  • Rubbing feet and palm will also help in bringing up the temperature.
  • Skin-to-skin contact with other people also helps in raising body temperature.
  • Ask the person to drink a warm liquid. Preferably water, tea or coffee. Don't drink alcohol.
  • If the person is not breathing, start CPR immediately. Stay with the person until help arrives.
  • The hospital may offer other treatments. Examples are the infusion of warm fluids into the body or the delivery of oxygen.

When to see a doctor?

Call your doctor if you suspect someone has hypothermia. While waiting for the ambulance to arrive, carefully carry the person indoors if possible. Gently remove the wet clothes, and make them wear warm and dry coats or blankets.

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Headache: Types, Causes and Treatment

Posted 07 June, 2022

Headache: Types, Causes and Treatment

Headache is a common condition that most people experience many times in their lives due to the increasing activity and hustle and bustle of life.Headache is a painful impact in any part of the head. It can be throbbing, constant, sharp or gentle. Headache may be due to emotional, physical, or environmental reasons or an underlying serious condition. The treatment of headache depends on the cause. It can be treated with proper medication and stress management.

Headaches can happen suddenly or may develop gradually, and may last for an hour to several days. It is also known as cephalgia in medical terms.

Types of Headache

Headache falls into three main categories depending on the source of the pain-

  1. Primary headache
  2. Secondary headache
  3. Cranial neuralgia or other headache

Primary Headache-

A primary headache is when the headache itself is the main problem. It has not appeared as a symptom of any disease. Primary headache includes-

  • Tension Type Headache- Tension type headache is the most common type of headache in adults and adolescents. It causes mild to moderate pain that comes and goes over time. Tension type headaches usually have no other symptoms.

  • Migraine- Migraines can cause severe stabbing pain or a throbbing sensation, usually on one side of the head. This often includes nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity towards light and sound. Migraine attacks can last for hours or days, and the pain can be severe enough to interfere with your daily activities. Medications can help prevent migraines and make it less painful.

  • Cluster Headache- Cluster headache is the most serious type of headache. You may experience a constant, severe burning or stabbing pain behind or around the eye. The pain can be so severe that most people with cluster headaches cannot sit still and walk during attacks.

This can occur 1-3 times a day, which can last from 2 weeks to 3 months. In this, a headache attack lasts from 15 minutes to 3 hours. Men get it 3-4 times more often than women.

  • Chronic Headache- Chronic headache refers to headache of almost any type that occurs very frequently, usually at least 15 days a month daily. It can be caused by overuse of painkillers.

  • New Daily Persistent Headache (NDPH)- Headache that starts suddenly and occurs every day for a long period of time is called New Daily Persistent Headache (NDPH). It is a subtype of chronic headache as this lasts at least four hours and occurs at least 15 days a month for up to 3 months or longer.

Secondary Headache-

Secondary headache is an important medical condition. It is rare but can be much more severe than primary headache. Secondary headache can be a warning of a more serious underlying condition, such as-

  • Brain Tumors- A brain tumor is a clump or growth of abnormal cells in the brain. The skull that surrounds your brain is very hard. Any growth in such a confined space can cause problems.

  • Meningitis-Meningitis is inflammation of the fluid and membranes that covers the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can occur when the fluid around the meninges becomes infected. Viral and bacterial infections are the common causes of meningitis.

  • Aneurysm- An aneurysm is widening of an artery caused by weakness in the artery wall. Often, it has no symptoms, but a blowout aneurysm can cause fatal complications.

Cranial neuralgia-

Cranial neuralgia is inflammation of one of the 12 cranial nerves that radiate from the brain, which controls muscles and carries sensory signals to and from the head and neck.

The most common example is trigeminal neuralgia, which affects the trigeminal nerve (the sensory nerve that connects the face) and can cause severe facial pain when inflamed.

Causes of Headache

Common causes of primary headache includes-

  • Stress and anxiety.
  • Poor posture.
  • Fatigue.
  • Squinting.
  • Dehydration.
  • Skipping meals.
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Hormonal changes.
  • Loud sounds.
  • Sleep pattern changes.
  • Smoking.
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • Genetics.
  • Physical trauma.

Treatment for Headache

Pain relieving medications are the main treatment for headaches. It includes-

  • Over-the-counter painkillers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • Prescription painkillers.

  • Preventive medications for certain medical conditions, such as migraine.

Treatment for headache related to overuse of medications include reducing or stopping treatment. Your doctor can help you plan for safe medication assistance. In severe cases, a person may require a short stay in the hospital to manage seizures safely and effectively.

Home Remedies of Headache

Hydrate Yourself-

One of the most common causes of headache is lack of water in our body. Proper hydration plays an important role in our well-being. So keep yourself well hydrated. You should drink enough fluids, which can include fresh juices, water, and coconut water. Avoid excessive consumption of caffeinated drinks such as tea and coffee as these drinks contribute to dehydration.

Consuming a healthy diet-

It is important to eat a balanced diet. One should eat at the right time as delay in meals can worsen your health.

The proper functioning of our brain requires glucose, and lack of glucose can lead to hypoglycemia, which in turn causes headache.

Take a nap-

If you feel stressed or low in energy, then relax and close your eyes. This helps release tension and pressure from your body and can help prevent headache.

Try a cold pack-

Place a cold compress on your forehead. Ice cubes wrapped in a towel, a bag of frozen vegetables, or even a cold shower can relieve headache. Keep the compress on your head for 15 minutes and then rest for 15 minutes.

Take a hot shower bath-

This is another effective way to treat headache. Wash your head with warm water. It reduces muscle tension and improves blood circulation.

Head massage-

Head massage is very useful, but massage should be done with soft hands. Apply light pressure to the painful area with your index finger or thumb. Head massage helps relax tense muscles and improves blood circulation.


Headache is usually caused by stress and tension. If the headache is light, smiling and laughing can heal it.

Breathe in and breathe out-

This technique is great for relieving stress and tension. When this is done in fresh air, it is one of the best practices for maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

When to visit a doctor?

See a doctor right away if you have the worst headache or experiencing loss of vision or consciousness, uncontrollable vomiting, or if the headache lasts for more than 72 hours and is less than 4 hours without any pain.

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Bowel (Fecal) Incontinence: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Posted 31 May, 2022

Bowel (Fecal) Incontinence: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Bowel incontinence, also known as anal or fecal incontinence, is the term used when bowel movements cannot be controlled. Stool (feces / waste) discharges out through the rectum at unwanted times. Bowel incontinence is more common in women than men and also in the older people.

Two types of bowel incontinence are:

  • Urge bowel incontinence- When the person suddenly wants to go to the toilet to pass stool but can't make it on time.
  • Passive bowel incontinence- When the person is unaware and nothing indicates that a bowel movement is about to occur.

The term bowel incontinence is used when one of these situations occurs:

  • Stool leaks when gas is released.
  • Stool leakage due to physical activity/daily activities.
  • You feel like you have to go to pass stools and can't get to the bathroom on time.
  • Stool is seen in underwear after a normal bowel movement.
  • There is a complete loss of bowel control.

Who is at risk for Bowel Incontinence?

Anyone can suffer from bowel incontinence, but some people get it more often than others. The following are more at risk-:

  • People over 65 years old
  • Women
  • Woman who has given birth
  • People with chronic constipation
  • Those having an injury or disease that causes nerve damage

Symptoms of Bowel Incontinence

Fecal or Bowel incontinence can be both, a short-term problem or one that occurs regularly. The word ‘bowel incontinence’ itself describes the issue but it is not all, it has few more symptoms, as it is not just a single health problem but a cluster of health issues, few of these symptoms are as follows 

  • Loose, watery stools (diarrhea)
  • Mucus along with the stools
  • Irregular bowel movements (constipation)
  • Abdominal discomfort and bloating
  • Abdominal pain or cramps
  • Itching and inflammatory irritation in the anal region

What causes Bowel Incontinence?

Normal bowel movement depends on the proper functioning of the:

  • Pelvic muscles
  • Rectum, lower end of the large intestine
  • Anal muscles
  • Nervous system

Injury to any of these areas can cause fecal incontinence.

Common causes of fecal incontinence are:

Nerve damage-

If the nerve that control sphincter movement of anal region is damaged, the sphincter will not close properly which will lead to involuntary movement of bowel through anal region.

Some of the causes of nerve damage are-

  • Birth trauma
  • Chronic constipation
  • Stroke
  • Diabetes
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)


Diarrhea is loose or watery stools. This loose stool can cause an immediate bowel movement. The urge can be so sudden that you don't have enough time to go to the washroom.


External piles can block the complete closure of the sphincter. This allows involuntary passage of stool all the time.

Pelvic floor dysfunction-

In women, excessive pressure on pelvic floor muscles during labor may cause damage to the sphincters and tone of pelvic floor muscle, leading to muscle weakening, which can cause bowel incontinence, urinary incontinence, and rectal prolapse.

Treatment for Bowel Incontinence

Bowel incontinence can be an uncomfortable condition, but it can be improved with treatment or medication.

Dietary changes- Preventing recurrent diarrhea and constipation is usually very helpful in controlling fecal incontinence. Changes in your diet, such as adjusting the amount of fiber you eat or drinking more fluids can often prevent diarrhea and constipation.

Medications-Your doctor may prescribe laxatives, anti-diarrhea medications, or stool softeners to treat fecal incontinence. Talk to your doctor before taking over-the-counter medications.

Bowel exercise-Developing a regular pattern of bowel movements can be very helpful. This may include going to the bathroom at certain times of the day, e.g. after meals or a treatment called anorectal biofeedback. This procedure measures the contraction of your sphincter muscles when you perform special exercises called Kegel exercises. Biofeedback training can strengthen your sphincters and give you more control over your bowel movements.

Surgery-Fecal incontinence can be treated with a variety of surgical procedures. Often this operation restores or replaces the sphinctermuscles.

Yoga or pelvic floor exercise-Regular exercise of pelvic floor muscle or yoga will help in regaining the pelvic floor muscle tone or sphincter health which will reduce the symptoms of bowel incontinence.

What should I avoid if I have Bowel Incontinence?

If your stool/bowel incontinence is caused by diarrhea, it's best to avoid foods that make your symptoms worse, such as-

  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Caffeinated drinks and food
  • Dairy products such as milk, cheese and ice cream
  • Fatty food
  • Drinks and foods that contain fructose
  • Fruits like apples, peaches and pears
  • Spicy food

When to see a doctor?

If you notice a change in bowel control, you should visit your doctor. Most people feel restless when discussing bowel movements, gas, or stool but doctors understand that this is very normal and can be treated by taking necessary precautions.

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All You Need to Know about Hallucinations

Posted 30 May, 2022

All You Need to Know about Hallucinations

Hallucinations are real perceptual sensations in the absence of an actual external stimulus. They are often bright and strong. Unlike dreaming, hallucinations occur when we are awake. These are different from illusions. An illusion is a twisted perception of a real object.

Hallucinations are common in people with psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but you don't need to have a mental illness to experience hallucinations.

Types of Hallucinations

Visual Hallucinations-

Seeing things that don't  actually exist are associated with visual hallucinations. Simple visual hallucinations are formless visual hallucinations, i.e. seeing lights, geometric shapes, colors, and some non-discrete objects in the absence of a real stimulus. Complex hallucinations are realistic images of objects, animals and people.

Olfactory Hallucinations-

Smelling odors that aren't really present are called olfactory hallucinations, also known as "phantosmia". Common odors include smells such as rotten fish, feces, smoke, cooking food, floral odors, etc.

Auditory Hallucinations-

The perception of sound without any actual sound is called auditory hallucination or "paracusia". Auditory hallucinations are the most common type of hallucinations that can be simple or complex. Sounds like whistling, hissing, etc. are simple hallucinations. Complex hallucinations involve hearing music, voices and conversations in which the voice heard can be friendly or aggressive, from known or unknown people, and also be unclear.

Tactile Hallucinations-

The false feeling of physical contact with an imaginary object is called a tactile hallucination. Tactile hallucinations can include the sensation of an insect or small animals crawling over the body, or the sensation of being kissed.

Gustatory Hallucinations-

Gustatory hallucinations are sensations of tasting something in the absence of anything being tasted. Usually these hallucinations have an unpleasant taste such as rotten eggs, vomit, etc. This condition is generally found in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Proprioceptive Hallucinations-

Proprioceptive Hallucinations is the feelingof the limbs being in a different place from the physical body. Experiences such as sailing, rising up from the ground or rolling on the floor are some examples of proprioceptive hallucinations.

Equilibrioception hallucination-

Feeling unbalanced after getting a ride is an example of an equilibrium hallucination. This is commonly seen in conditions such as schizophrenia, brain damage, brain tumors, and depression.

Nociceptive Hallucinations-

Intentional and unexplained pain sensations without any external stimulus or other systemic cause is called nociceptive hallucinations. This is often seen in bipolar disorder.

Chronoceptive Hallucinations-

People who are under the influence of drugs such as depressants, alcohol and entheogenic drugs usually suffer from impaired perception of time.

Symptoms of Hallucinations

Hallucinations can have different types of symptoms, depending on the type, including-

  • Feeling sensations in the body (sensation of crawling on the skin or movement).
  • Hearing noises (such as music, footsteps, or knocking on doors).
  • Hearing voices (may include positive or negative voices, such as voices telling you to hurt yourself or others).
  • Seeing objects, creatures, patterns or light.
  • Smelling (may be pleasant or unpleasant in one or both nostrils).
  • Tasting (often metallic taste).

Causes of Hallucinations

Hallucinations can be caused by a variety of factors and conditions -

  • Under the influence of alcohol, drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, LSD and heroin.
  • Conditions such as delirium and dementia.
  • High fever, especially in children.
  • Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depression.
  • Serious diseases such as kidney failure, liver failure, brain tumors, etc.
  • Brainstem lesions and tumors.
  • A person with narcolepsy may have hallucinations that are different from their dreams.
  • Some drugs cause hallucinations such as those prescribed for depression, psychosis, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.
  • Late stages of diseases such as cancer and AIDS.
  • Social isolation.

How to Help People who Have Hallucinations?

  • Call the person's name gently and be with them.
  • Ask them to tell you what they are seeing or feeling. Don't deny what they're talking about.
  • Ask if there is anything you can do to help them?
  • Assure the person that the noise or other stimulus will disappear soon.
  • Distract the person from this feeling in a very gentle way and make them feel relaxed.
  • Don't argue with them or calmly tackle the situation.

Treatment for Hallucinations

Treating hallucinations involves treating the underlying cause, which can be organic or psychiatric. Several measures can be taken to treat or prevent hallucinations. Antipsychotics may be prescribed for severe hallucinations.

  • Stress management, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and getting enough sleep are some simple measures that can help prevent hallucinations.
  • Drugs causing hallucinations, such as cocaine, LSD, etc., should be gradually reduced and discontinued. Rehabilitation programs can help people overcome alcohol and drug addiction.
  • Educating and advising patients and families on how to manage hallucinations can be helpful.
  • Some antipsychotic drugs, such as olanzapine and risperidone, are prescribed to treat hallucinations.

When to see a doctor?

It is advisable to consult a doctor after any hallucinations, even if there are no other symptoms. It is especially important to get medical help if a person has a medical condition that can cause hallucinations, experience worsening hallucinations, or other changes in mood or behavior.

Not all hallucinations require treatment. Hallucinations are not a medical emergency, but only a doctor can determine if it is a serious health problem or not.

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What is Multiple sclerosis (MS)? Know its Types, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Posted 09 May, 2022

What is Multiple sclerosis (MS)? Know its Types, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease. In this condition, your immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells. In people with multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks cells in the myelin (the protective sheath that surrounds nerves in the brain and spinal cord).


Types of Multiple sclerosis

There are four types of multiple sclerosis-


Progressive-Relapsing (PR) MS-

Progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosisis the rarest form of MS and occurs in about 5% of MS patients. People with PRMS experience steady disease progression and a decline in neurological function as seen in primary progressive multiple sclerosis, along with occasional flare-ups as in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.


Secondary Progressive (SP) MS-

Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is a type of MS that follows relapsing–remitting MS. Most people diagnosed with relapsing–remitting MS (RR-MS) will eventually develop secondary progressive MS (SP-MS). After periods of flares (also called attacks or exacerbations) and remission, the disease begins to progress steadily. People with SP-MS may or may not go into remission.


Primary Progressive (PP) MS-

Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) is characterized by persistent worsening in neurologic function without relapse or remission. This form of MS occurs equally in men and women, with an age of onset about 10 years later than relapsing MS.


Relapsing-Remitting (RR) MS-

Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) is the most common type of MS, affecting approximately 85% of MS patients. RR-MS is caused by an inflammatory attack on myelin and nerve fibers that causes worsening of neurological function. Symptoms vary from patient to patient, and symptoms may come on suddenly (called relapses or exacerbations) and then go away (remission).


Symptoms of Multiple sclerosis

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis can occur single or multiple times. They can range in intensity from mild to severe and can also be for long or short term. These are-

  • Fatigue
  • Numbness or tingling (needle-type sensation)
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Sexual dysfunction (males and females loses interest in sex)
  • Sick
  • Emotional instability (mood swings)
  • Difficulty walking
  • Muscle cramp
  • Vision problems
  • Bladder or bowel problems
  • Cognitive changes
  • Depression

Complications of Multiple sclerosis

As MS progresses, worsening symptoms can lead to complications such as:

  • Difficulty walking, which may require a cane, walker or wheelchair.
  • Loss of bowel or bladder control.
  • Memory problems.
  • Sexual difficulties.

What causes Multiple sclerosis?

When you have MS, the protective myelin sheath around some of the nerve fibers in your brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord is damaged.

The damage is believed to be the result of an attack by the immune system. Researchers believe there may be environmental triggers, such as: a virus or toxin that triggers an attack on the immune system.

When your immune system attacks myelin, it causes demyelination. This can lead to remission as a new layer of myelin forms, but chronic inflammation can lead to scarring, which can lead to permanent nerve damage.

Risk factors for Multiple sclerosis

There are several risk factors for developing MS. These risk factors include:

  • Having close relatives suffering from MS.
  • Obesity.
  • Infections.
  • Smoking.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Low levels of vitamin D and low sun exposure are linked to a higher risk of MS.

Treatment for Multiple sclerosis


  • Vitamin D is a powerful immunomodulatory and immune system relaxant. Vitamin D can be taken as a dietary supplement obtained from eating certain foods such as cold-water fish, fortified dairy products, and eggs, or ingested through exposure to natural sunlight or light therapy devices.
  • Antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E can slow inflammation. Vitamin C can also prevent urinary tract infections. However, high doses of vitamin A can be harmful during pregnancy, while high doses of vitamin E can increase the risk of death. Talk to your doctor before taking this dietary supplement.
  • People with MS have lower levels of vitamins B12, a vitamin found in meat and animal products. Therefore, vegans and vegetarians may be more susceptible to vitamin B12 deficiency. Your doctor may order blood tests to check for vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Taking calcium improves symptoms of multiple sclerosis. However, supplements may reduce the risk of osteoporosis, while some people with MS are more at risk for developing osteoporosis.



Ashwagandha, a herbal supplement sometimes recommended by specialized Ayurvedic practitioners for the treatment of MS as it is an adaptogen while helps in stimulating cells in the immune system.



Chyawanprash is used as an immune modulator. Thus, Chyawanprash is an effective remedy for multiple sclerosis.



Ginger has anti-inflammatory properties which are used to reduce the inflammation around the nerves and muscles, which is a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS).



Licorice is the best remedy to reduce the inflammation which is effective in treating MS symptoms.



Peppermint is clinically helpful for the treatment of MS as it has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.



Turmeric is beneficial in treating MS symptoms as it is a rich source of anti-inflammatory properties.


Cranberry juice-

Drinking cranberry juice can lower the symptoms of multiple sclerosis as it is rich in antioxidants.


Doing exercise-

Exercise improves heart health and can help a person with MS stay strong and active. Yoga can also help with fatigue and improves mood, although it doesn't help with mobility or thinking skills. Everyone, including those with MS, should get regular aerobic exercise and strength training.


When to see a doctor?

If your doctor says you have multiple sclerosis, you should see an MS specialist or neurologist for a second opinion.

People should consider a diagnosis of MS if they have one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Loss of vision in one or both eyes.
  • Acute paralysis in the leg or on one side of the body.
  • Acute tingling and numbness in the limbs.
  • Body imbalance.
  • Double vision.
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What is Fainting? Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Posted 29 April, 2022

What is Fainting? Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Fainting is a temporary loss of consciousness that occurs when the brain doesn't receive proper oxygen supply. It is a sudden episode that lasts for fragments of seconds or a minute. Although the loss of consciousness is sudden, recovery of consciousness also takes place in no time. The medical term for this situation is ‘syncope’whereas generally the word ‘blackout’ can be used for the same. Normally, people confuse fainting with seizures due its sudden onset but both are different as seizures show many other symptoms along with loss of consciousness like- upward rolling of eyes, jerky movements of body parts in contrast to which fainting doesn't show any of these symptoms. Fainting is common among teenagers and affects girls more than boys. People of all ages can faint but older people can have serious underlying causesbehind it.

Types of Fainting

There are several types of syncope. Three common types are:

Vasovagal syncope 

Vasovagal syncope affects the vagus nerve. It can be caused by emotional trauma, stress, seeing blood or standing for a long period of time.

Carotid sinus syncope 

This type occurs when the carotid arteries in the neck are constricted, usually after turning the head sideways or wearing a collar that is too tight.

Situational syncope 

This occurs due to shortness of breath due to heavy coughing, urinating, defecating or having digestive problems.

Cardiac syncope

 This type of syncope occurs due to a heart problem. Many heart conditions can affect how much oxygen-rich blood is pumped to the brain.

Symptoms and Signs of Fainting

Before fainting, a person may exhibit or feel all or some of these signs and symptoms-

  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Headache
  • Sweating
  • Sudden trouble in hearing
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea
  • Feeling hot
  • Shaking or Trembling

In case of fainting caused by stimulation of the vagus nerve, a person may experience the spasm or the urge to have a bowel movement just before the person passes out.

Causes of Fainting

Here are some of the common causes of fainting-

Neurocardiogenic syncope

 Neurocardiogenic syncope develops due to short-term dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Some people call it neuron mediated syncope (NMS).

Possible triggers for neurocardiogenic syncope are-

  • Uncomfortable or shocking images, such as seeing blood.
  • Sudden contact with unpleasant sights or experience.
  • Sudden emotional upheaval, such as after receiving tragic news.
  • Embarrassment.
  • Not moving for a long time.
  • Strenuous physical activities like heavy weight lifting.

Orthostatic Hypotension

 It refers to fainting after getting up too quickly from a sitting or horizontal position.

Gravity pulls blood into the legs and lowers blood pressure elsewhere in the body. The nervous system normally responds by increasing the heart rate and constricting blood vessels. It stabilizes blood pressure.

However, if something interferes with this stabilization process, it can result in poor blood and oxygen supply to the brain, leading to fainting.

Possible triggers are-

  • Dehydration-If the fluid level in the body drops, the blood pressure also drops, makingit difficult to stabilize your blood pressure. As a result, less blood and oxygen reaches the brain.
  • Uncontrolled diabetes-A person with diabetes may need to urinate frequently, leading to dehydration.
  • Some medicines-Taking diuretics, beta-blockers, and medicines to lower blood pressure can cause orthostatic hypotension in some people.
  • Alcohol-Some people pass out after drinking too much alcohol for a short time.
  • Certain Neurological Disorders-Neurological disorders can affect the nervous system. This can cause orthostatic hypotension.
  • Carotid Sinus Syndrome-The carotid artery is the main artery that supplies blood to the brain. When pressure is applied to the pressure sensors or the carotid sinus in the carotid artery, it can cause fainting.

Cardiac syncope-

Major heart problems can reduce the supply of blood and oxygen to the brain. Possible heart problems are-

  • Cardiac arrhythmias or abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Stenosis or obstruction of the heart valves.
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure.
  • Heart attack, due to lack of blood and oxygen in the heart.

This usually requires immediate medical attention and close monitoring.

Can Fainting be Prevented?

Ways to prevent fainting-

  • If you feel like fainting, lie down and place your feet slightly higher than your head. Be careful when moving, especially when moving from a lying or standing position. Change positions very slowly.
  • If you are pregnant, avoid lying on your abdomen, especially in the last months of pregnancy, as the pressure of the enlarged uterus (womb) on the main blood vessels can cause fainting.
  • Eating healthy and not skipping meals can help. Drink plenty of clean fluid.
  • If you faint, you should avoid driving or using machinery until you have discussed your problem with your doctor.
  • If you are suddenly scared and feel like you might pass out, take a deep breath and slowly count to 10 to calm yourself down.
  • Avoid alcohol

When to seek a doctor?

Fainting can be a sign of medical conditions such as heart or brain disease. Therefore, it is always a good idea to consult your doctor, especially if you have not fainted beforeand also if

  • You have fainted and don't know the cause.
  • You have recently fainted more than once.
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